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International Journal of Photoenergy
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 628649, 11 pages
Review Article

Photobiomodulation on Stress

1Laboratory of Laser Sports Medicine, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006, China
2The Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science of Ministry of Education of China, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631, China

Received 17 February 2012; Revised 17 June 2012; Accepted 25 June 2012

Academic Editor: Rui Duan

Copyright © 2012 Timon Cheng-Yi Liu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Photobiomodulation (PBM) is a nondamaged modulation of laser irradiation or monochromatic light (LI) on a biosystem function. It depends on whether the function is in its function-specific homeostasis (FSH). An FSH is a negative-feedback response of a biosystem to maintain the function-specific conditions inside the biosystem so that the function is perfectly performed. A function in its FSH is called a normal function. A function far from its FSH is called a dysfunctional function. The process of a function from dysfunctional to normal is called a functional normalization. For a normal function in its FSH, there are FSH-essential subfunctions (FESs), FSH-nonessential subfunctions (FNSs), and an FES/FNS-specific homeostasis (FESH/FNSH). A FSH can resist internal/external disturbances under the threshold, but can be disrupted by an FSH-specific stress (FSS). A normal/dysfunctional FSS is called a successful/chronic stress. An FESH/FNSH-specific stress was called an extraordinary/ordinary stress. A low level LI (LLL) cannot directly affect a normal function, but can modulate a chronic stress. A normal function may have a chronic ordinary stress, and an LLL may modulate the chronic ordinary stress so that it promotes the normalization of the dysfunctional FNS and then upgrades the normal function. A high level LI can modulate a normal function and may be a successful stress.