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International Journal of Photoenergy
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 289290, 11 pages
Research Article

Intensification of Azo Dye Removal Rate in the Presence of Immobilized Nanoparticles and Inorganic Anions under UV-C Irradiation: Optimization by Response Surface Methodology

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz 5157944533, Iran

Received 28 May 2013; Revised 14 August 2013; Accepted 4 September 2013

Academic Editor: Peter Robertson

Copyright © 2013 Mohammad A. Behnajady and Mahsa Hajiahmadi. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Wastewaters contain inorganic anions that affect the removal rate of organic pollutants. The present study aims to optimize the effects of inorganic anions such as , Cl, , and on the removal rate of an organic pollutant in the presence of immobilized TiO2 nanoparticles using response surface methodology (RSM). C.I. Acid Red 17 (AR17) was used as a model organic pollutant. Thirty experiments were required to study the effects of anions in various concentrations. The results indicate that the addition of and ions intensifies the removal rate of AR17. The results of the analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed a high coefficient of determination value ( and ). The results indicate that RSM is a suitable method for modeling and optimizing the process. The results prove that in the presence of and and ions especially in the combination situation the removal rate of AR17 is enhanced considerably. An important synergy effect was observed in the combination of and ions, so that AR17 removal percent under the optimized RSM conditions was considerably more than the sum of removal percent when these ions are used individually.