Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Photoenergy
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 416245, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/416245
Research Article

The Effect of Annealing Temperature and KCN Etching on the Photovoltaic Properties of Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 Solar Cells Using Nanoparticles

1Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Hyogo, 2167 Shosha, Himeji, Hyogo 671-2280, Japan
2Advanced Institute for Science and Technology, Hanoi University of Science and Technology, No 1, Dai Co Viet Rd., Hai Ba Trung, Hanoi, Vietnam
3Research Center for Solar Energy Chemistry, Osaka University, Toyonaka 560-8531, Japan

Received 16 March 2013; Revised 14 May 2013; Accepted 15 May 2013

Academic Editor: Mingce Long

Copyright © 2013 Duy-Cuong Nguyen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. I. Repins, M. A. Contreras, B. Egaas et al., “19.9%-efficient ZnO/CdS/CuInGaSe2 solar cell with 81.2% fill factor,” Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 235–239, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. J. H. Shi, Z. Q. Li, D. W. Zhang, Q. Q. Liu, Z. Z. Sun, and S. M. Huang, “Fabrication of Cu(In, Ga)Se2 thin films by sputtering from a single quaternary chalcogenide target,” Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 160–164, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. D. B. Mitzi, M. Yuan, W. Liu et al., “A high-efficiency solution-deposited thin-film photovoltaic device,” Advanced Materials, vol. 20, no. 19, pp. 3657–3662, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. T. Wada, Y. Matsuo, S. Nomura et al., “Fabrication of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films by a combination of mechanochemical and screen-printing/sintering processes,” Physica Status Solidi (A), vol. 203, no. 11, pp. 2593–2597, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. B. S. Ko, S. J. Sung, D. H. Kim, D. H. Lee, and D. K. Hwang, “Effects of annealing on structural and electrical properties of sub-micron thick CIGS films,” Current Applied Physics, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  6. H. C. Wang, C. C. Wang, S. W. Feng, L. H. Chen, and Y. S. Lin, “Synthesis of CIGS thin film by solvothermal route,” Optical Materials Express, vol. 3, pp. 54–66, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  7. P. Jackson, D. Hriskos, E. Lotter et al., “New world record efficiency for Cu(In, Ga)Se2 thin film solar cells beyond 20%,” Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications, vol. 19, no. 7, pp. 894–897, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  8. P. Bloesch, A. Chirila, P. Reinhard, S. Nishiwaki, S. Buecheler, and A. N. Tiwari, “Electrical back contact and impurities in CIGS solar cells,” in Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Innovative Solar Cells, Tsukuba, Japan, January, 2013.
  9. V. K. Kapur, A. Bansal, P. Le, and O. I. Asensio, “Non-vacuum processing of CuIn1−xGaxSe2 solar cells on rigid and flexible substrates using nanoparticle precursor inks,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 431-432, pp. 53–57, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. V. A. Akhavan, B. W. Goodfellow, M. G. Panthani et al., “Colloidal CIGS and CZTS nanocrystals: a precursor route to printed photovoltaics,” Journal of Solid State Chemistry, vol. 189, pp. 2–12, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. A. R. Uhl, Y. E. Romanyuk, and A. N. Tiwari, “Thin film Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells processed from solution pastes with polymethyl methacrylate binder,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 519, no. 21, pp. 7259–7263, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. S. J. Park, J. W. Cho, J. K. Lee, K. Shin, J. H. Kim, and B. K. Min, “Solution processed high band-gap CuInGaS2 thin film for solar cell applications,” Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  13. Q. Guo, G. M. Ford, R. Agrawal, and H. W. Hillhouse, “Ink formulation and low-temperature incorporation of sodium to yield 12% efficient Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 solar cells from sulfide nanocrystal inks,” Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications, vol. 21, pp. 64–71, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. J. H. Lee, J. Chang, J.-H. Cha et al., “Large-scale, surfactant-free solution syntheses of Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 nanocrystals for thin film solar cells,” European Journal of Inorganic Chemistry, vol. 2011, no. 5, pp. 647–651, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. T. K. Todorov, O. Gunawan, T. Gokmen, and D. B. Mitzi, “Solution-processed Cu(In, Ga)(S, Se)2 absorber yieldinga 15.2% efficient solar cell,” Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 82–87, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  16. Q. Guo, H. W. Hillhouse, and R. Agrawal, “Synthesis of Cu2ZnSnS4 nanocrystal ink and its use for solar cells,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 131, no. 33, pp. 11672–11673, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. Q. Guo, S. J. Kim, M. Kar et al., “Development of CulnSe2 nanocrystal and nanoring inks for low-cost solar cells,” Nano Letters, vol. 8, no. 9, pp. 2982–2987, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. Joint Committee for Powder Diffraction Standards, powder diffraction file. No. 85-1575, JDCPS International Center Diffraction Data, 1997.
  19. A. Ennaoui, “Recent results on Cu(In, Ga)(SSe)2 and Cu2(Zn, Sn)(S, Se)4 thin film solar cells,” in Proceedings of the 11th Symposium of Research Center for Solar Energy Chemistry Prospects for Utilization of Solar Energy: Next-Generation Solar Cells and Photocatalysts, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan, February 2012.
  20. S. Ahn, C. Kim, J. H. Yun et al., “CuInSe2 (CIS) thin film solar cells by direct coating and selenization of solution precursors,” Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol. 114, no. 17, pp. 8108–8113, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. H. Lee, W. Lee, J. Y. Kim et al., “Highly dense and crystalline CuInSe2 thin films prepared by single bath electrochemical deposition,” Electrochimica Acta, vol. 87, pp. 450–456, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  22. I. Oja, M. Nanu, A. Katerski et al., “Crystal quality studies of CuInS2 films prepared by spray pyrolysis,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 480-481, pp. 82–86, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. J. Eberhardt, H. Metzner, R. Goldhahn et al., “Defect-related photoluminescence of epitaxial CuInS2,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 480-481, pp. 415–418, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. Y. Yan, Y. Liu, L. Fang et al., “Influence of post-grown treatments on CuInS2 thin films prepared by sulphurization of Cu-In films,” Rare Metals, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 490–495, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. C. Y. Cummings, G. Zoppi, I. Forbes, D. Colombara, L. M. Peter, and F. Marken, “Rocking disc electro-deposition of CuIn alloys, selenisation, and pinhole effect minimisation in CISe solar absorber layers,” Electrochimica Acta, vol. 79, pp. 141–147, 2012. View at Google Scholar