Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Photoenergy
Volume 2013, Article ID 817424, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/817424
Research Article

Thin Film CIGS Solar Cells, Photovoltaic Modules, and the Problems of Modeling

DEIM, University of Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Building 9, 90128 Palermo, Italy

Received 13 July 2013; Accepted 13 August 2013

Academic Editor: Leonardo Palmisano

Copyright © 2013 Antonino Parisi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. T. Unold and C. A. Kaufmann, “1.18-chalcopyrite thin-film materials and solar cells,” in Comprehensive Renewable Energy, E. C. A. Sayigh, Ed., pp. 399–422, Elsevier, Oxford, UK, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  2. V. S. Saji, I.-H. Choi, and C.-W. Lee, “Progress in electrodeposited absorber layer for CuIn1−xGaxSe2 (CIGS) solar cells,” Solar Energy, vol. 85, no. 11, pp. 2666–2678, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. R. N. Bhattacharya, W. Batchelor, J. F. Hiltner, and J. R. Sites, “Thin-film Culn1−xGaxSe2 photovoltaic cells from solution-based precursor layers,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 75, no. 10, pp. 1431–1433, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. A. C. Busacca, A. C. Cino, S. Riva-Sanseverino, M. Ravaro, and G. Assanto, “Silica masks for improved surface poling of lithium niobate,” Electronics Letters, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 92–94, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. A. C. Busacca, E. D'Asaro, A. Pasquazi, S. Stivala, and G. Assanto, “Ultraviolet generation in periodically poled lithium tantalate waveguides,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 93, no. 12, Article ID 121117, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. A. C. Busacca, C. A. Santini, S. R. Sanseverino et al., “Surface periodic poling in congruent lithium tantalate,” Electronics Letters, vol. 42, no. 9, pp. 546–547, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. A. C. Busacca, C. L. Sones, R. W. Eason, and S. Mailis, “First-order quasi-phase-matched blue light generation in surface-poled Ti:indiffused lithium niobate waveguides,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 84, no. 22, pp. 4430–4432, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. A. C. Busacca, S. Stivala, L. Curcio, and G. Assanto, “Parametric conversion in micrometer and submicrometer structured ferroelectric crystals by surface poling,” International Journal of Optics, vol. 2012, Article ID 606892, 11 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. A. C. Busacca, S. Stivala, L. Curcio, and P. Livreri, “Random quasi-phase matching in congruent lithium tantalate waveguides by proton exchange,” Electronics Letters, vol. 48, pp. 783–784, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  10. E. Cantelar, M. Domenech, G. Lifante et al., “Multi-line NIR-RGB emission in Nd:LiNbO3 RPE optical waveguides,” Electronics Letters, vol. 43, no. 11, pp. 632–633, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. E. Cantelar, G. Lifante, F. Cussó et al., “Dual-polarization-pump CW laser operation in Nd3+:LiNbO3 channel waveguides fabricated by reverse proton exchange,” Optical Materials, vol. 30, no. 7, pp. 1039–1043, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. M. Cherchi, S. Bivona, A. C. Cino, A. C. Busacca, and R. L. Oliveri, “Universal charts for optical difference frequency generation in the terahertz domain,” IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, vol. 46, no. 6, pp. 1009–1013, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. M. Cherchi, S. Stivala, A. Pasquazi et al., “Second-harmonic generation in surface periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides: on the role of multiphoton absorption,” Applied Physics B, vol. 93, no. 2-3, pp. 559–565, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. M. Cherchi, A. Taormina, A. C. Busacca et al., “Exploiting the optical quadratic nonlinearity of zinc-blende semiconductors for guided-wave terahertz generation: a material comparison,” IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 368–376, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. M. Clerici, L. Caspani, E. Rubino et al., “Counterpropagating frequency mixing with terahertz waves in diamond,” Optics Letters, vol. 38, pp. 178–180, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  16. G. Nava, P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani et al., “Integrated frequency shifter in periodically poled lithium tantalate waveguide,” Electronics Letters, vol. 46, no. 25, pp. 1686–1688, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. A. Pasquazi, A. Busacca, S. Stivala, R. Morandotti, and G. Assanto, “Nonlinear disorder mapping through three-wave mixing,” IEEE Photonics Journal, vol. 2, no. 1, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. E. M. Rodríguez, D. Jaque, E. Cantelar et al., “Time resolved confocal luminescence investigations on Reverse Proton Exchange Nd:LiNbO3 channel waveguides,” Optics Express, vol. 15, no. 14, pp. 8805–8811, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. S. Stivala, A. Pazquazi, L. Colace et al., “Guided-wave frequency doubling in surface periodically poled lithium niobate: competing effects,” Journal of the Optical Society of America B, vol. 24, no. 7, pp. 1564–1570, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. R. Inguanta, S. Piazza, C. Sunseri et al., “An electrochemical route towards the fabrication of nanostructured semiconductor solar cells,” in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Power Electronics, Electrical Drives, Automation and Motion (SPEEDAM '10), pp. 1166–1171, June 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. R. L. Oliveri, R. Inguanta, T. Spanò et al., “CIGS thin film by one-step electrodeposition for solar cells,” in Proceedings of 15th Italian National Conference of Photonic Technologies (Fotonica '13), Milan, Italy, 2013.
  22. A. Parisi, A. C. Cino, A. C. Busacca, M. Cherchi, and S. Riva-Sanseverino, “Integrated optic surface plasmon resonance measurements in a borosilicate glass substrate,” Sensors, vol. 8, no. 11, pp. 7113–7124, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. A. Parisi, F. P. D’Aleo, S. Guarino et al., “Integrated optic surface plasmon resonance measurements in glass substrates,” in Proceedings of the 3rd European Workshop on Optical Fibre Sensors, vol. 6619 of Proceedings of SPIE, Napoli, Italy, July 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. S. Stivala, A. Pasquazi, A. C. Busacca et al., “Frequency doubling in surface periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides: competing effects,” in Proceedings of the European Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics and the International Quantum Electronics Conference (CLEOE-IQEC '07), Munich, Germany, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  25. A. Parisi, L. Curcio, V. Rocca et al., “Photovoltaic module characteristics from CIGS solar cell modelling,” in Proceedings of the International Conference Renewable Energy Research and Applications (ICRERA '13), 2013.
  26. R. Miceli, “Energy management and smart grids,” Energies, vol. 6, pp. 2262–2290, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  27. G. Cipriani, V. Di Dio, D. La Manna, F. Massaro, R. Miceli, and G. Zizzo, “Economic analysis on dynamic photovoltaic systems in new italian “feed in tariffs” context,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Clean Electrical Power: Renewable Energy Resources Impact (ICCEP'13), 2013.
  28. G. Cipriani, V. Di Dio, L. P. Di Noia et al., “A PV plant simulator for testing MPPT techniques,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Clean Electrical Power: Renewable Energy Resources Impact (ICCEP '13), 2013.
  29. V. Di Dio, S. Favuzza, D. La Caseia, and R. Miceli, “Economical incentives and systems of certification for the production of electrical energy from renewable energy resources,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Clean Electrical Power (ICCEP '07), pp. 277–282, May 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. V. Di Dio, R. Miceli, C. Rando, and G. Zizzo, “Dynamics photovoltaic generators: technical aspects and economical valuation,” in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Power Electronics, Electrical Drives, Automation and Motion (SPEEDAM '10), pp. 635–640, June 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. M. Bouzguenda, T. Salmi, A. Gastli, and A. Masmoudi, “Evaluating solar photovoltaic system performance using MATLAB,” in Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Renewable Energies and Vehicular Technology (REVET '12), pp. 55-–559.
  32. A. N. Celik and N. Acikgoz, “Modelling and experimental verification of the operating current of mono-crystalline photovoltaic modules using four- and five-parameter models,” Applied Energy, vol. 84, no. 1, pp. 1–15, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. G. Cipriani, V. Di Dio, D. La Cascia, R. Miceli, and R. Rizzo, “A novel approach for parameters determination in four lumped PV parametric model with operative range evaluations,” International Review of Electrical Engineering, vol. 8, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  34. G. Farivar and B. Asaei, “Photovoltaic module single diode model parameters extraction based on manufacturer datasheet parameters,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Power and Energy (PECon '10), pp. 929–934, December 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. M. G. Villalva, J. R. Gazoli, and E. R. Filho, “Comprehensive approach to modeling and simulation of photovoltaic arrays,” IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 1198–1208, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. G. Cipriani, G. Ciulla, V. Di Dio, D. La Cascia, and R. Miceli, “A device for PV modules I-V characteristic detection,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Clean Electrical Power: Renewable Energy Resources Impact (ICCEP '13), 2013.
  37. V. Lo Brano, A. Orioli, G. Ciulla, and A. Di Gangi, “An improved five-parameter model for photovoltaic modules,” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 94, no. 8, pp. 1358–1370, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. A. Luque and S. Egedus, Handbook of Photovoltaic Science and Engineering, Wiley, Chichester, UK, 2003.
  39. F. Ghani, M. Duke, and J. Carson, “Numerical calculation of series and shunt resistance of a photovoltaic cell using the Lambert W-function: experimental evaluation,” Solar Energy, vol. 87, pp. 246–253, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  40. M. A. Green, Solar Cells: Operating Principles, Technology, and System Applications, vol. 1, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA, 1982.
  41. A. Chatterjee, A. Keyhani, and D. Kapoor, “Identification of photovoltaic source models,” IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 883–889, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. S. Li and H. Zheng, “Energy extraction characteristic study of solar photovoltaic cells and modules,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting: The Electrification of Transportation and the Grid of the Future, San Diego, Calif, USA, July 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. H. -L. Tsai, C. S. Tu, and Y. J. Su, “Development of generalized photovoltaic model using MATLAB/SIMULINK,” in Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering and Computer Science WCECS ('08), San Francisco, Calif, USA, 2008.
  44. M. G. Villalva, J. R. Gazoli, and E. Ruppert Filho, “Modeling and circuit-based simulation of photovoltaic arrays,” in Proceedings of the Brazilian Power Electronics Conference (COBEP '09), pp. 1244–1254, Bonito-Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, October 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. W. De Soto, S. A. Klein, and W. A. Beckman, “Improvement and validation of a model for photovoltaic array performance,” Solar Energy, vol. 80, no. 1, pp. 78–88, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. D. Sera, R. Teodorescu, and P. Rodriguez, “PV panel model based on datasheet values,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics (ISIE '07), pp. 2392–2396, Vigo, Spain, June 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. V. Di Dio, D. La Cascia, R. Miceli, and C. Rando, “A mathematical model to determine the electrical energy production in photovoltaic fields under mismatch effect,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Clean Electrical Power (ICCEP '09), pp. 46–51, Capri, Italy, June 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. H. Zhu, A. K. Kalkan, J. Hou, and S. J. Fonash, “Applications of AMPS-1D for solar cell simulation,” AIP Conference Proceedings, vol. 462, pp. 309–314, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  49. S. Fonash, J. Arch, J. Cuiffi et al. et al., “A manual for AMPS-1D for Windows 95/NT,” The Pennsylvania State University, pp. 10–31, 1997.
  50. G. A. M. Hurkx, D. B. M. Klaassen, and M. P. G. Knuvers, “A new recombination model for device simulation including tunneling,” IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 331–338, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. K. Yang, J. R. East, and G. I. Haddad, “Numerical modeling of abrupt heterojunctions using a thermionic-field emission boundary condition,” Solid-State Electronics, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 321–330, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. Y. Liu, Y. Sun, and A. Rockett, “An improved algorithm for solving equations for intra-band tunneling current in heterojunction solar cells,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 520, no. 15, pp. 4947–4950, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. https://wiki.engr.illinois.edu/display/solarcellsim.
  54. Y. Liu, Y. Sun, and A. Rockett, “A new simulation software of solar cells—wxAMPS,” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 98, pp. 124–128, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. M. Gloeckler, A. L. Fahrenbruch, and J. R. Sites, “Numerical modeling of CIGS and CdTe solar cells: setting the baseline,” in Proceedings of the 3rd World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, vol. 1, pp. 491–494, Osaka, Japan, May 2003. View at Scopus
  56. K. R. McIntosh, J. N. Cotsell, J. S. Cumpston, A. W. Norris, N. E. Powell, and B. M. Ketola, “An optical comparison of silicone and eva encapsulants for conventional silicon PV modules: a ray-tracing study,” in Proceedings of the 34th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC '09), pp. 544–549, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, June 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. E. E. van Dyk and E. L. Meyer, “Analysis of the effect of parasitic resistances on the performance of photovoltaic modules,” Renewable Energy, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 333–344, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. M. A. Green, Solar Cells: Operating Principles, Technology, and System Applications, vol. 1 of Prentice-Hall Series in Solid state Physical Electronics, Prentice Hall, New York, NY, USA, 1982.
  59. U. Malm and M. Edoff, “Simulating material inhomogeneities and defects in CIGS thin-film solar cells,” Progress in Photovoltaics, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 306–314, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus