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International Journal of Photoenergy
Volume 2014, Article ID 453747, 11 pages
Research Article

Cadmium Sulfide Nanoparticles Synthesized by Microwave Heating for Hybrid Solar Cell Applications

Instituto de Energías Renovables, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), 62580 Temixco, MOR, Mexico

Received 23 April 2014; Revised 4 July 2014; Accepted 17 July 2014; Published 19 August 2014

Academic Editor: Serap Gunes

Copyright © 2014 Claudia Martínez-Alonso et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Cadmium sulfide nanoparticles (CdS-n) are excellent electron acceptor for hybrid solar cell applications. However, the particle size and properties of the CdS-n products depend largely on the synthesis methodologies. In this work, CdS-n were synthetized by microwave heating using thioacetamide (TA) or thiourea (TU) as sulfur sources. The obtained CdS-n(TA) showed a random distribution of hexagonal particles and contained TA residues. The latter could originate the charge carrier recombination process and cause a low photovoltage (, 0.3 V) in the hybrid solar cells formed by the inorganic particles and poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). Under similar synthesis conditions, in contrast, CdS-n synthesized with TU consisted of spherical particles with similar size and contained carbonyl groups at their surface. CdS-n(TU) could be well dispersed in the nonpolar P3HT solution, leading to a of about 0.6–0.8 V in the resulting CdS-n(TU) : P3HT solar cells. The results of this work suggest that the reactant sources in microwave methods can affect the physicochemical properties of the obtained inorganic semiconductor nanoparticles, which finally influenced the photovoltaic performance of related hybrid solar cells.