Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Photoenergy
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 524135, 14 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/524135
Review Article

An Overview: Recent Development of Titanium Oxide Nanotubes as Photocatalyst for Dye Degradation

1Nanotechnology & Catalysis Research Centre (NANOCAT), Institute of Postgraduate Studies (IPS), University of Malaya, 3rd Floor, Block A, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
2Department of Chemistry, Sahmyook University, Seoul 139-742, Republic of Korea

Received 25 December 2013; Revised 14 January 2014; Accepted 15 January 2014; Published 27 February 2014

Academic Editor: Jiaguo Yu

Copyright © 2014 Chin Wei Lai et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Today, organic dyes are one of the largest groups of pollutants release into environment especially from textile industry. It is highly toxic and hazardous to the living organism; thus, the removal of these dyes prior to discharge into the environment is essential. Varieties of techniques have been employed to degrade organic dyes and heterogeneous photocatalysis involving titanium dioxide (TiO2) appears to be the most promising technology. In recent years, TiO2 nanotubes have attracted much attention due to their high surface area and extraordinary characteristics. This paper presents a critical review of recent achievements in the modification of TiO2 nanotubes for dye degradation. The photocatalytic activity on dye degradation can be further enhanced by doping with cationic or anionic dopant.

1. Introduction

1.1. Overview of Organic Dye Degradation

Nowadays, global warming poses one of the most serious threats to the global environment ever faced in human history. The environment pollutions will cause an unprecedented onslaught of deadly and costly weather disasters, such as severe storms, droughts, heat waves, and rising seas and floods all over the world [13]. One of the major water pollutions is the residual dyes from different sources (e.g., textile industries, paper and pulp industries, dye and dye intermediates industries, pharmaceutical industries, tannery, and craft bleaching industries, etc.) which are considered a wide variety of persistent organic pollutants introduced into the natural water resources or wastewater treatment systems [4]. Dyeing and finishing industry produces as much as 50–100 L wastewater/kg of finished textile products [5]. As shown in Figure 1, World Bank has estimated that textile industries in many countries contribute to 17 to 20% of global industrial water pollution [6]. There are about 10–15% of 700 thousand tons of 10 thousand types of dyes that have been discharged without any proper physicochemical treatment [7].

524135.fig.001
Figure 1: Water pollution caused by textile industrial from various countries. The darker icon signifies higher level of water pollution which is based on percentage of total biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) emissions [20].

There are more than 100 000 commercially available dyes and an annual worldwide production of synthetic dyes of nearly 1 million tons [810]. Reactive dyes have been estimated to contribute the most to the discharge of dye wastewater, as much as 57 thousand tons (Figure 2) because of their low fixation rate. As shown in Table 1, the reactive dye has a very poor fixation rates. The fixation rate is influenced by the extent of hydrolysis of the dye [11], signifying the vulnerability of reactive dyes to hydrolysis in dye bath.

tab1
Table 1: General fixation rates for different dye classes [22].
524135.fig.002
Figure 2: Mass loss of global dyes into the wastewater [21].

The release of the persistent organic dyes structure with toxicity property may cause negative effects on the environment and human health. These negative impacts mainly attributed to the nonbiodegradable nature of the persistent organic dyes as well as their high colour intensity and are able to reduce aquatic diversity by blocking the passage of sunlight through the water [12]. In particular, the discharge of persistent organic dye effluents into the natural water resources or wastewater treatment systems is undesirable because most of these organic dyes released and their breakdown products are very toxic, carcinogenic, or mutagenic to life forms mainly due to the carcinogens, such as benzidine, naphthalene, and other aromatic compounds in the structure of persistent organic dyes [5, 13, 14]. These pollutants can cause irritation of the eyes, skin, respiratory tract, sore throat, asthma, and allergic contact dermatitis [15]. The persistent organic dye effluent will remain in the environment for a long period of time if incomplete or inadequate treatments during the water cleaning stage [5]. For instance, the half-life of hydrolyzed Reactive Blue 19 is about 46 years at pH 7 and 25°C [16].

Wastewater containing dyes is very difficult to treat, since the dyes are recalcitrant organic molecules, resistant to aerobic digestion, and are stable to light. Many traditional textile wastewater treatment studies have been applied at many textile mills. However, a synthetic dye in wastewater can not be efficiently decolorized by these traditional methods. This is because of the high cost and disposal problems for treating dye wastewater at large scale in the textile and paper industries [17]. As such, several wastewater treatments for colour removal can be divided into 3 categories, which include physical, chemical, and biological treatments [18, 19]. Nevertheless, most of the conventional dye removal techniques will have their respective limitations in textile industry.

1.2. Dye Removal Techniques

The most popular method for the removal of pollutants from wastewater is using liquid-phase adsorption. In fact, liquid-phase adsorption provides an attractive alternative for the treatment of contaminated waters, especially if the sorbent is cheap and does not require an additional pretreatment step before its application. The adsorption is a well-known equilibrium separation process and an effective method for water decontamination applications due to the water reuse in terms of initial cost, flexibility and simplicity of design, ease of operation, and insensitivity to toxic pollutants [23]. Adsorption and ion exchange reactions play an important role in decolonization [24, 25]. This decolorization process is strongly dependent on the physiochemical factors (e.g., interaction between dye and sorbent, active surface area of sorbent, particle size, reaction time, environment temperature, and pH) [26]. The most important aspect of the adsorption technique is that no harmful substance will be generated and released throughout the reactions. Besides, the adsorption process using activated carbons has been widely used to remove persistent organic dyes from wastewaters [27, 28]. However, commercially available activated carbon is still far from being a potential candidate in dyes removal applications due to the high production cost and regeneration problems [2]. The regeneration activated carbons involve restoring the adsorptive capacity of saturated activated carbon by desorbing adsorbed dyes on its surface. In addition, the adsorption involves a phase transfer of pollutants to other secondary wastes that subsequently require additional treatment of proper disposal procedure.

In general, several types of filtration technology (physical methods) have been widely used for wastewater and textile effluents treatment, such as membrane-filtration processes (microfiltration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, and reverse osmosis) and adsorption techniques [23, 2933]. However, major disadvantages of the membrane-filtration processes are that they are only applied in small wastewater flow rate, require higher production cost of membrane and cost of periodic replacement, require high working pressure to push the wastewater flow through membrane filtration, and are unable to reduce dissolved solid content. In addition, this technique requires frequent cleaning and replacement of the modules to maintain effectiveness in removing organic dyes.

Besides, biodegradation of organic dyes is often the most economical alternative as compared to physical and chemical processes. The possible microorganisms used for biodegradation dyes are fungi, bacteria, yeasts, and algae. They are involved in fungal decolourization, microbial degradation, and adsorption by (living or dead) microbial biomass and bioremediation systems that are commonly applied to the treatment of industrial effluents [9, 35]. However, the limitations of this technique are often restricted because of technical constraint. The high toxicity of some chemicals could decrease the numbers of active organisms used in the aerobic biological process and long hydraulic retention time [36]. In addition to that, biodegradation of organic dyes normally is incapable of obtaining satisfactory colour elimination with current conventional biodegradation processes [37]. In this manner, many other organic dyes are recalcitrant due to their complex chemical structure and synthetic organic origin [38]. In this case, azo dyes are not totally degraded or show slow degradation because of their xenobiotic nature [39].

The chemical treatment includes coagulation and flocculation for separation of dyes. The major disadvantages of these techniques are high cost of coagulating or flocculating agent and pH dependency for effective dye removal as well as disposal problem resulted from accumulation of concentrated sludge. In addition, secondary pollution problems will arise due to the excessive chemical used. Meanwhile, the main reaction involved in chemical wastewater treatment is ion exchange, which is ineffective in removing several types of persistent organic dyes. The low removal in the case of anionic dyes (disperse dyes), diffusion limitation that can affect reaction rate while the use of organic solvent for regeneration is very expensive [18] and thus, they are commercially unattractive.

1.3. Photocatalytic Degradation of Organic Dye by Titanium Dioxide

In recent years, photocatalysis system has attracted great interest from science community as the most promising way to solve the environmental problems, especially getting rid of residual dyes pollutants from wastewater stream [2, 4042]. In this manner, photocatalysis system is considered to be ideal green environmental solution to realize our green economy future. In this case, TiO2-based nanomaterials have been broadly studied as the most promising photocatalyst for environmental remediation such as air purification, water purification, heavy metals degradation, and hazardous waste remediation [3, 4349]. The reasons mainly attributed to the nontoxicity, cost effective, long-term stability, widespread availability, and high stability against photocorrosion with great capacity for oxidation and high photocatalytic property. The development of the nanoarchitecture of TiO2 assemblies with precisely controllable nanoscale features has gained significant scientific interest [4254].

According to Ibhadon and Fitzpatrick (2013) [34], the principle behind the photocatalysis involves the photoexcitation of the metal oxides with light energy (Figure 3). In this case, only UVL (λ ≤ 387 nm) greater than the band gap of the anatase TiO2   generates electron-hole pairs as shown in (1). The photoinduced electrons and holes diffuse to the particle surface of the TiO2, in which they can be exploited for various redox processes analogous to those of an electrochemical cell. The positive holes react with water, an electron donors, to produce the most crucial and powerful oxidizing free radicals, OH ((2) and Table 2). Thus, any organic compound adsorbed on the surface of the photocatalysts is oxidized by OH (3). The photoexcited negative electrons react with oxygen to become superoxide radicals, , and perform the similar oxidative attack on organic compounds. Consider where is the positive hole in valence band (VB) and is the photoexcited electron in conduction band (CB) (Figure 4). Consider In this manner, TiO2 can act as an ideal semiconductor material for photocatalysis because it is nontoxic, relatively cheap, and highly photostable. It is interesting to note that TiO2 exists in six different polymorphs, namely, rutile (tetragonal), anatase (tetragonal), brookite (orthorhombic), TiO2 (B) (monoclinic), TiO2 (II) (alpha-PbO2), and TiO2(H) (hollandite) [56, 57]. TiO2 nanoparticle has been widely used as an active photoelectrode applied in variety of environment and energy system since the discovery by Fujishima and Honda [58]. In particular, the particulate TiO2 in the form of suspension requires appropriate substrates as support to form compacted film [44, 59]. TiO2 possessing a large bandgap energy of 3.2 and 3.02 eV for anatase and rutile, respectively. Thus, they only can be excited under UV light irradiation. When TiO2 is excited by UV light irradiation, electrons from valence band will jump to the conduction band leaving behind positive holes (h+) [34]. The electrons and holes diffuse to the particle surface of the TiO2 in which they can be exploited for various redox processes analogous to those of an electrochemical cell. The holes react with water, an electron donor, to produce the most crucial and powerful oxidizing free radicals capable of degrading the organic dyes.

tab2
Table 2: Oxidation potential of several powerful oxidants [34].
524135.fig.003
Figure 3: Overall mechanism of the photocatalytic degradation of organic dye compounds using TiO2-based nanomaterial.
524135.fig.004
Figure 4: A schematic model for the formation of TiO2 nanotubes [55].

However, the major drawback of such nanoparticle TiO2 is the random pathway of photoinduced electrons during photocatalytic reactions, which will eventually lead to the recombination through trapping/detrapping of electron/hole pairs as well as longer electron transporting time in the particulate TiO2. In addition to that, the probability of recombination losses of photoinduced charge carriers will be increased significantly due to the presence of defects or trapping sites, more grain boundaries, and disordered contact areas [50, 6063]. Meanwhile, it was found that two-dimensional TiO2 thin film is able to eliminate the reusability of photocatalyst issues and ease the filtration procedure after photoreaction [47, 50]. In order to further maximize specific surface area of TiO2 thin film for better photons absorption from illumination, design and development of TiO2-based nanostructure assemblies have gained significant interest and triggered enormous effort in physics, chemistry, and material science [4547, 50, 51, 60]. In this paper, the nanotubular structure of TiO2 is extensively reviewed. This is because TiO2 nanotubes are becoming more popular due their high photocatalytic activity for various types of dye degradation.

2. Preparation of TiO2 Nanotubes

TiO2 nanotubes can be produced by several methods such as using a template of nanoporous alumina [64], sol-gel transcription process using organogelator templates [65], seeded growth mechanisms [66], and hydrothermal techniques [6769]. However, none of these methods offer superior control on the nanotube dimensions than the electrochemical anodization technique [52, 70, 71]. In the following sections, several techniques to prepare TiO2 nanotubes were discussed.

2.1. Sol-Gel Transcription Synthesis

Sol-gel transcription process is a wet-chemical technique used to synthesize oxides at relatively low temperature. The process consists of hydrolysis of precursor species and subsequently polycondensation to form solid network which is known as gel. The common precursors employed in sol-gel processing are metal alkoxides and metal chlorides. This sol-gel template processing making use of porous alumina, polymer fibers or super molecular compound as a template, and their diameters was normally larger than 50 nm [7274]. The walls of the TiO2 nanotubes, prepared by deposition in porous alumina membrane, consisted of anatase nanoparticles and contained mesopores arising from the spaces between the anatase particles [75, 76]. Hoyer’s research team firstly reported the formation of the pore diameter of 70–100 nm TiO2 nanotubes via sol-gel transcription process in 1996.

Sol-gel transcription process in formation of high-ordered TiO2 nanotubes was reported by Kang et al. (2009) [77]. In this report, titanium isopropoxide, Ti(OC3H7)4, in ethanol was used as precursor. The TiO2 nanotubes were grown on an alumina template. Then, the resultant sample was dried at room temperature for 12 hours in an ambient environment and calcined at 500°C to convert into crystalline phase. After that, the isolated TiO2 nanotubes were obtained by removing the alumina template. However, the main drawback of sol-gel method is that it is difficult to form aligned and well-ordered nanotubular structure. Besides that, this method is time consuming because it is relatively difficult to remove the solvent and organic by-products and not practical from the economic point of view due to high chemical and energy consumption. Furthermore, raw materials used in this experimental works are expensive and caused many research groups to try to find an alternative way to produce TiO2 nanotubes.

2.2. Hydrothermal Synthesis

Hydrothermal synthesis can be defined as a heterogeneous reaction in the presence of aqueous solvents or mineralizers under high pressure and temperature. This is an important technique to produce big, pure, and dislocation-free single crystals [7880]. The crystal growth is performed in a steel pressure vessel known as autoclave where nutrient is supplied along with water. A temperature gradient needs to be maintained in the growth chamber so that the hotter end dissolves the nutrient whereas the cooler end causes seeds to take additional growth. The growth rate of the seeds will increase with increasing concentration of solvent, crystallization temperature, and temperature gradient [76, 81, 82].

In a typical hydrothermal experiment, the TiO2 nanoparticle powder is processed in alkaline solution such as NaOH in a Teflon-lined autoclave at a temperature up to 150°C for time range from 15 h and above [69]. TiO2 nanoparticles will transform to nanotubes when the reactive Na+ and OH species react with TiO2 and forms Ti–O–Na and Ti–OH bonds. At this stage, the particles will be transformed to lamellar structure and finally roll up to form tubular structure to reduce the high energy [68, 83]. Figure 4 shows the schematic model for the formation of TiO2 nanotubes. However, the main drawback of hydrothermal technique is the inability to form nanostructured tubes which are well aligned and ordered. Besides that, hydrothermal treatment required long reaction duration and addition of highly concentrated NaOH having difficulty in obtaining uniform size of TiO2 nanotubes.

2.3. Electrochemical Anodization Synthesis

Highly ordered and vertically oriented TiO2 nanotubes can be fabricated by potentiostatic anodization of Ti metal under suitable electrolyte and processing conditions. TiO2 nanotubes are gained after the process which initially involves the formation of barrier layer and followed by rather well-defined nanoporous structure [51, 53, 84, 85]. The Ti metal was used as substrate for TiO2 nanotubes to grow. The amorphous TiO2 nanotubes can be obtained at the end of the anodization process. This amorphous phase of nanotubes needs to be crystallized via high temperature annealing process [70, 86, 87].

Electrochemical anodization is an electrolytic process that creates a protective or decorative oxide layer over a metallic surface [88]. Synthesis of TiO2 nanotubes using electrochemical anodization method is preferred due to the simplicity in preparation and handling and being more controllable than the other methods [58]. Generally, vertically oriented nanotubes offer large specific surface area, which have tube-like structures with circular nanotubular opening that serve as a scaffold to anchor light-harvesting assemblies [50, 51]. The diameter of the opening ranges from 20 nm to 350 nm and the length of the tube can vary from 0.2 μm to 1000 μm depending on the processing parameter. The bottom part of the nanotubes which are in the form of domes is called barrier layer with typical shape of hexagonal or pentagonal [8991].

In anodizing cell, Ti is used as an anode and it is connected to positive terminal of power source, whereas platinum is used as cathode being connected to negative terminal of power source [84, 92]. There are few other candidates for cathode, which consist of carbon, lead, nickel, or stainless steel. The cathode has to be an inert electrode and nonreactive in the electrolyte bath [90, 93]. Generally, the geometrical feature of the nanotubes is controlled by a variety of parameters such as anodization potential, electrolyte composition, and properties such as conductivity and viscosity, as well as anodization time and temperature. From theoretical perspective, an anodic oxide layer growth involved field-assisted oxidation of anodic Ti film. The high electric field across the anodic oxide layer will induce the Ti–O bond polarization. Then, Ti–O polarization will lead to the pit formation. These random pits will then etch into nanotubular structure in the presence of fluoride ions via chemical dissolution reaction. The comparison between the unique features of sol-gel transcription process, hydrothermal synthesis, and electrochemical anodization techniques is summarized in Table 3.

tab3
Table 3: Comparison of the most widely used synthesis methods for preparing TiO2 nanotubes.

3. Titanium Dioxide Nanotubes for Dye Degradation

In this manner, one-dimensional TiO2 nanotubes are considered a promising candidate because of their inner and outer wall surface area of nanotube that greatly increases the active sites available for photon absorption [43, 48, 50, 80, 94]. One-dimensional TiO2 with well-aligned nanotube arrays provides unique electronic properties, such as high electron mobility, low quantum confinement effects, and high mechanical strength [9597]. Furthermore, vertical charge transport in well-aligned TiO2 nanotube structure greatly contributes to better photocatalytic efficiency due to the grains of TiO2 that are stretched in the tube growth direction and low recombination losses at grain boundaries as compared to randomly oriented particulate TiO2 [47, 50, 63, 97]. Quan et al. (2005) [98] have reported that TiO2 nanotubes give a higher kinetics constant than TiO2 nanoparticles for photoelectrochemical degradation of pentachlorophenol. In terms of dye degradation in TiO2 nanotubes, it is also performed far much better as compared to that of TiO2 nanoparticles. Xu et al. (2011) [99] show that TiO2 nanotubes efficiency was two times much better than nano-TiO2 in degrading Acid Orange 7 dye.

3.1. Cationic Doping on Titanium Dioxide Nanotubes

TiO2 nanotube is considered the noble photocatalyst in organic dye degradation because of its many intrinsic properties [88, 100], but it has its own limitations which are critical to photocatalytic techniques such as recombination of photogenerated electron-hole pairs, fast backward reaction, and inefficient visible light utilization. These drawbacks are very much related to the wide band gap of TiO2 nanotubes. In fact, TiO2 nanotube can only effectively function under the UV region (λ < 400 nm) and it only contains about 4-5% of UV rays from our solar energy. Thus, the efficient use of visible light from our solar energy is essential for effectively degrading organic dye. These drawbacks can not be overcome by only optimizing the dimensions of TiO2 nanotube itself. Therefore, considerable efforts that have been exerted to solve these drawbacks by modifying TiO2 nanotubes with the addition of electron donors (hole scavengers), carbonates salts, metal ion doping [101], anion doping [102], and dye sensitization [62] have been investigated. Among these, doping of TiO2 using metal ions (Fe, Cr, V, Nb, Si, Al, Li, Na, K, Cu, Mn, Co, and Gd) and nonmetal (C, N, S, and P) has reported to show a promising result under visible light irradiation though the mechanism under which this process occurs still remains controversial. The following are some of the attempts made to modify the electronic structures of TiO2 nanotubes to improve their effectiveness under visible light.

In 2004, Komornicki et al. [103] proposed that binary oxide photocatalysts are promising candidates with enhanced properties for photocatalytic system. Such photocatalysts may benefit from the combination of the best properties of their pure components and modification of the electronic structure of the system could be expected. Later, in 2006, Higashimoto et al. [104] suggested that binary oxide photocatalyst can promote better charge carriers separation by accumulating electrons and holes in two different semiconductor layers with suppression of charge carriers recombination. The useful features of the individual components in the mixed oxide systems can be complementary with each other, while alleviating the disadvantages at the same time. Generally, numerous studies have proved that visible light absorption of TiO2 photocatalyst could be improved and recombination of charge carriers could be suppressed by coupling with another cationic species [43, 105107]. The replacement of cationic ions within the crystal lattice may create impurity energy levels that facilitate better absorption in the visible light region, as depicted in Figure 5. Furthermore, different redox energy levels for their corresponding conduction and valence bands provide another attractive approach to achieve much more efficient charge carrier separation to minimize the recombination losses. When TiO2 photocatalyst is loaded with sufficient content of cationic species in lattice, the electrons would be injected from the semiconductor with a more negative CB level to the positive one, while holes would be transferred from the semiconductor with a more positive VB level to the negative one. Thus, separation of charge carriers could be achieved; as a consequence, the lifetime of the charge carriers and the efficiency of the interfacial charge transfer to water are increasing significantly [49, 100, 108].

524135.fig.005
Figure 5: Band structure of a cationic loaded on wide band gap of semiconductor photocatalyst with visible light response [105].

Based on the literature, majority of the cationic species-loaded TiO2 photocatalysts studied were prepared using the coprecipitation, incipient wet impregnation method and sol-gel method. Details of the cationic species-loaded TiO2 photocatalysts by several researchers and their findings are summarized in Table 4. Transitional metal and rare earth metal ions have been tried as dopants to improve the photocatalytic efficiency of TiO2 in the visible light region. However, performances of those binary oxide photocatalysts were strongly dependent on the content of cationic dopants. The impurity levels created by cationic dopants in the binary oxide photocatalyst are usually discrete, which would appear disadvantageous for the migration of the charge carriers if the content of cationic dopants exceeds the optimum value [43, 47, 109]. Furthermore, there are a few drawbacks of cationic species doping such as different morphological and crystalline properties of the photocatalyst due to different methods of doping and the shift of the absorption edge in the metal ion doped system may have a complex origin, due to either homogeneous substitution of Ti4+ or segregated MxOy clusters.

tab4
Table 4: Summary of the works reported on the different cationic-loaded TiO2 photocatalyst.

Although cationic species doping can improve the visible spectrum response, the photogenerated electron-hole pair lifetime decreases causing the overall efficiencies to be at similar level [126]. This reason might be attributed to the doped sites that often behave as recombination centers for photogenerated charged carriers due to the substitution of Ti4+ with metallic ions. Also, transition metal species-loaded TiO2 samples often suffer from thermal instability. These cause the photocatalytic activity of cationic species-loaded TiO2 to often decrease because of the thermal instability or an increase in carrier recombination centers [127, 128]. Thus, making intuitive prediction is impossible, and conducting a focused research is challenging. It is important to fine-tune the content of the cationic substitution into TiO2 photocatalysts to develop an efficient visible light driven photocatalyst.

3.2. Anionic Doping on Titanium Dioxide Nanotubes

Anion doping is another type of elemental doping to modify the band gap of TiO2 nanotubes. It has been proven that anion-doped TiO2, such as nitrogen-, carbon-, phosphorus-, or sulphur-doped TiO2, exhibits visible photoresponse and reduced the band gap of native TiO2. According to Tang and Li (2008), this is because the atomic orbitals of nonmetal elements (e.g., N2p, S3p, and C2p) have higher potential energy than O2p [129]. This will form a new VB instead of a pure O2p atomic orbital which reduce the band gap energy without affecting the conduction band level. This doping required the creation of surface oxygen vacancies where the anions will incorporate into the anatase as well as rutile by substitution in oxygen lattice sites [130].

The nonmetal ion doped catalysts are better for extending the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 into visible region compared to metal cationic species loading methods because their impurity states are near the VB edge and their roles as recombination centers may be minimized. Table 5 shows the characteristics of anion-doped TiO2. However, the photocatalytic activity of conventional TiO2 doped with nonmetal elements is still limited or at early stage. It is expected that a combination of doping elements could result in a marked increase in the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 under both UV and visible light. Most of the researchers have doped the TiO2 with nitrogen in order to enhance the photocatalytic activity and expand the photoactivity response toward the visible light region. In addition, codoped species may be more appropriate for extending the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 into the visible light region. For example, nonmetal codoping of TiO2 such as F-B-codoping, C-N-codoping, and S-N-codoping was studied to further enhance the visible light activity.

tab5
Table 5: Summary of the works reported on the different anionic-doped TiO2 photocatalysts.

The purpose of the modification of TiO2 is believed to improve the performance of TiO2 nanotubes by introducing new energy level into the forbidden gap, therefore causing the effect of band gap narrowing and provide site that slow down the recombination process. This improved the performance of the TiO2 nanotubes in photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes [131]. The following sections are some of the attempts made to modify the electronic structure of TiO2 nanotube to improve its effectiveness under visible light. The electronic structure of TiO2 by the substitution of metal ions or anions to harvest visible light response is shown in Figure 6. The various schemes illustrating the possible band gap electronic structure and excitation processes of visible-light-responsive TiO2 materials are shown in Figure 7.

524135.fig.006
Figure 6: Electronic structure of TiO2 by the substitution of metal ions or anions to harvest visible light response [101].
524135.fig.007
Figure 7: Various schemes illustrating the possible band gap electronic structure and excitation processes of visible-light-responsive TiO2 materials: (a) pure TiO2; (b) band gap narrowing model for nonmetal-doped TiO2; (c) oxygen-deficient TiO2; (d) localized mid-gap level model for nonmetal-doped TiO2; (e) oxygen vacancy and nonmetal-doped mid-gap levels are considered together [41].

4. Conclusion and Future Works

Nanosize TiO2 especially TiO2 nanotubes seems to be the most promising photocatalyst for organic dye degradation. It is very obvious that many researchers have been trying to synthesize not only higher active surface area of nanotubes but also sunlight-driven photocatalyst for effective dye degradation. The industrial application of TiO2 nanotubes is anticipated for the future due to its high photocatalytic activity, photostability, and nontoxicity. Nevertheless, further modifications are essential to improve its photocatalytic activity under the direct sunlight irradiation. Thus, various potential cationic and anionic elements have been employed to increase TiO2 nanotubes efficiency for organic dye degradation under sunlight irradiation. It is believed that TiO2 nanotubes still permit extensive and in-depth study on the electronic and lattice structure in order to truly understand the effect of different doping method and elements on TiO2 nanotubes. This is crucial because it is obvious that same elements with different doping methods demonstrated a different photocatalytic activity on dye degradation.

Conflict of Interests

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper.

Acknowledgments

This research is supported by High Impact Research Chancellory Grant UM.C/625/1/HIR/228 (J55001-73873) from the University of Malaya. In addition, authors would like to thank University of Malaya for sponsoring this work under EScience MOSTI (06-02-10 SF0130).

References

  1. J. A. Turner, “A realizable renewable energy future,” Science, vol. 285, no. 5428, pp. 687–689, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. D. Mohan and C. U. Pittman Jr., “Arsenic removal from water/wastewater using adsorbents—a critical review,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 142, no. 1-2, pp. 1–53, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. H.-J. Oh, J.-H. Lee, Y.-J. Kim, S.-J. Suh, J.-H. Lee, and C.-S. Chi, “Synthesis of effective titania nanotubes for wastewater purification,” Applied Catalysis B, vol. 84, no. 1-2, pp. 142–147, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. C. Zaharia and D. Suteu, “Textile organic dyes—characteristics, polluting effects and separation/elimination procedures from industrial effluents—a critical overview,” in Organic Pollutants Ten Years after the Stockholm Convention—Environmental and Analytical Update, T. Puzyn, Ed., InTech, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  5. B. Manu and S. Chaudhari, “Anaerobic decolorisation of simulated textile wastewater containing azo dyes,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 82, no. 3, pp. 225–231, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. S. H. S. Chan, T. Y. Wu, J. C. Juan, and C. Y. Teh, “Recent developments of metal oxide semiconductors as photocatalysts in advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) for treatment of dye waste-water,” Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, vol. 86, no. 9, pp. 1130–1158, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. R. Vinu and G. Madras, “Kinetics of sonophotocatalytic degradation of anionic dyes with nano-TiO2,” Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 473–479, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. C. I. Pearce, J. R. Lloyd, and J. T. Guthrie, “The removal of colour from textile wastewater using whole bacterial cells: a review,” Dyes and Pigments, vol. 58, no. 3, pp. 179–196, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. G. McMullan, C. Meehan, A. Conneely et al., “Microbial decolourisation and degradation of textile dyes,” Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 56, no. 1-2, pp. 81–87, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. A. K. Sinha, M. Pradhan, S. Sarkar, and T. Pal, “Large-scale solid-state synthesis of Sn–SnO2 nanoparticles from layered SnO by sunlight: a material for dye degradation in water by photocatalytic reaction,” Environmental Science & Technology, vol. 47, no. 5, pp. 2339–2345, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  11. W. J. Epolito, Y. H. Lee, L. A. Bottomley, and S. G. Pavlostathis, “Characterization of the textile anthraquinone dye Reactive Blue 4,” Dyes and Pigments, vol. 67, no. 1, pp. 35–46, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. R. Koswojo, R. P. Utomo, Y.-H. Ju et al., “Acid green 25 removal from wastewater by organo-bentonite from Pacitan,” Applied Clay Science, vol. 48, no. 1-2, pp. 81–86, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. D. Suteu, C. Zaharia, and T. Malutan, “Removal of orange 16 reactive dye from aqueous solutions by waste sunflower seed shells,” Journal of the Serbian Chemical Society, vol. 76, no. 4, pp. 607–624, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. C. Zaharia, D. Suteu, A. Muresan, R. Muresan, and A. Popescu, “Textile wastewater treatment by homogeneous oxidation with hydrogen peroxide,” Environmental Engineering and Management Journal, vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 1359–1369, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. S. Merouani, O. Hamdaoui, F. Saoudi, M. Chiha, and C. Pétrier, “Influence of bicarbonate and carbonate ions on sonochemical degradation of Rhodamine B in aqueous phase,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 175, no. 1–3, pp. 593–599, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. O. J. Hao, H. Kim, and P.-C. Chiang, “Decolorization of wastewater,” Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 449–505, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. S. M. Ghoreishi and R. Haghighi, “Chemical catalytic reaction and biological oxidation for treatment of non-biodegradable textile effluent,” Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 95, no. 1, pp. 163–169, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. N. J. Robinson, S. K. Whitehall, and J. S. Cavet, “Microbial metallothioneins,” Advances in Microbial Physiology, vol. 44, pp. 183–213, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. D. Acemoglu, S. Johnson, and J. A. Robinson, “The colonial origins of comparative development: an empirical investigation,” American Economic Review, vol. 91, no. 5, pp. 1369–1401, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. The World Bank, “Water pollution, textile industry (% of total BOD emissions),” 2013, http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EE.BOD.TXTL.ZS/countries/1W?display=map.
  21. S. Vanhulle, M. Trovaslet, E. Enaud et al., “Decolorization, cytotoxicity, and genotoxicity reduction during a combined ozonation/fungal treatment of dye-contaminated wastewater,” Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 584–589, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. E. Matyjas and E. Rybicki, “Novel reactive red eyes,” Autex Research Journal, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 90–95, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. A. Ḑbrowski, “Adsorption—from theory to practice,” Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, vol. 93, no. 1–3, pp. 135–224, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. Y. M. Slokar and A. M. le Marechal, “Methods of decoloration of textile wastewaters,” Dyes and Pigments, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 335–356, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. A. Kandelbauer, A. Erlacher, A. Cavaco-Paulo, and G. M. Guebitz, “Laccase-catalyzed decolorization of the synthetic azo-dye Diamond Black PV 200 and of some structurally related derivatives,” Biocatalysis and Biotransformation, vol. 22, no. 5-6, pp. 331–339, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. V. Kumar, L. Wati, P. Nigam et al., “Decolorization and biodegradation of anaerobically digested sugarcane molasses spent wash effluent from biomethanation plants by white-rot fungi,” Process Biochemistry, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 83–88, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. B. H. Hameed, A. T. M. Din, and A. L. Ahmad, “Adsorption of methylene blue onto bamboo-based activated carbon: kinetics and equilibrium studies,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 141, no. 3, pp. 819–825, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. K. Selvi, S. Pattabhi, and K. Kadirvelu, “Removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solution by adsorption onto activated carbon,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 80, no. 1, pp. 87–89, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. V. Kumar, N. Talreja, D. Deva, N. Sankararamakrishnan, A. Sharma, and N. Verma, “Development of bi-metal doped micro- and nano multi-functional polymeric adsorbents for the removal of fluoride and arsenic(V) from wastewater,” Desalination, vol. 282, pp. 27–38, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  30. A. Aouni, C. Fersi, B. Cuartas-Uribe, A. Bes-Pia, M. I. Alcaina-Miranda, and M. Dhahbi, “Reactive dyes rejection and textile effluent treatment study using ultrafiltration and nanofiltration processes,” Desalination, vol. 297, pp. 87–96, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  31. E. Ellouze, N. Tahri, and R. B. Amar, “Enhancement of textile wastewater treatment process using Nanofiltration,” Desalination, vol. 286, pp. 16–23, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. H. K. Shon, S. Phuntsho, D. S. Chaudhary, S. Vigneswaran, and J. Cho, “Nanofiltration for water and wastewater treatment—a mini review,” Drinking Water Engineering and Science, vol. 6, pp. 47–53, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  33. R. A. Al-Juboori and T. Yusaf, “Biofouling in RO system: mechanisms, monitoring and controlling,” Desalination, vol. 302, pp. 1–23, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  34. A. O. Ibhadon and P. Fitzpatrick, “Heterogeneous photocatalysis: recent advances and applications,” Catalysts, vol. 3, pp. 189–218, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  35. Y. Fu and T. Viraraghavan, “Fungal decolorization of dye wastewaters: a review,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 79, no. 3, pp. 251–262, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. K. G. Bhattacharyya and A. Sarma, “Adsorption characteristics of the dye, Brilliant Green, on Neem leaf powder,” Dyes and Pigments, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 211–222, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. T. Robinson, G. McMullan, R. Marchant, and P. Nigam, “Remediation of dyes in textile effluent: a critical review on current treatment technologies with a proposed alternative,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 77, no. 3, pp. 247–255, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. M. N. V. R. Kumar, T. R. Sridhari, K. D. Bhavani, and P. K. Dutta, “Trends in color removal from textile mill effluents,” Colourage, vol. 45, no. 8, pp. 25–34, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. W. S. Pereira and R. S. Freire, “Azo dye degradation by recycled waste zero-valent iron powder,” Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 832–838, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. D. A. Tryk, A. Fujishima, and K. Honda, “Recent topics in photoelectrochemistry: achievements and future prospects,” Electrochimica Acta, vol. 45, no. 15-16, pp. 2363–2376, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. A. Fujishima, X. Zhang, and D. A. Tryk, “TiO2 photocatalysis and related surface phenomena,” Surface Science Reports, vol. 63, no. 12, pp. 515–582, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. A. Kubacka, M. Fernández-García, and G. Colón, “Advanced nanoarchitectures for solar photocatalytic applications,” Chemical Reviews, vol. 112, no. 3, pp. 1555–1614, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. Y.-C. Nah, I. Paramasivam, and P. Schmuki, “Doped TiO2 and TiO2 nanotubes: synthesis and applications,” ChemPhysChem, vol. 11, no. 13, pp. 2698–2713, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. C. W. Lai and S. Sreekantan, “Preparation of hybrid WO3–TiO2 nanotube photoelectrodes using anodization and wet impregnation: improved water-splitting hydrogen generation performance,” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol. 38, pp. 2156–2166, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  45. X. Chen and S. S. Mao, “Titanium dioxide nanomaterials: synthesis, properties, modifications and applications,” Chemical Reviews, vol. 107, no. 7, pp. 2891–2959, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. Z. Su and W. Zhou, “Formation, morphology control and applications of anodic TiO2 nanotube arrays,” Journal of Materials Chemistry, vol. 21, no. 25, pp. 8955–8970, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. A. Ghicov and P. Schmuki, “Self-ordering electrochemistry: a review on growth and functionality of TiO2 nanotubes and other self-aligned MOx structures,” Chemical Communications, no. 20, pp. 2791–2808, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. M. Kitano, M. Matsuoka, M. Ueshima, and M. Anpo, “Recent developments in titanium oxide-based photocatalysts,” Applied Catalysis A, vol. 325, no. 1, pp. 1–14, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. C. W. Lai and S. Sreekantan, “Optimized sputtering power to incorporate WO3 into C-TiO2 nanotubes for highly visible photoresponse performance,” NANO, vol. 7, no. 6, Article ID 1250051, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  50. L. Sun, S. Zhang, X. Sun, and X. He, “Effect of the geometry of the anodized titania nanotube array on the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells,” Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, vol. 10, no. 7, pp. 4551–4561, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. C. A. Grimes, “Synthesis and application of highly ordered arrays of TiO2 nanotubes,” Journal of Materials Chemistry, vol. 17, no. 15, pp. 1451–1457, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. S. Sreekantan, L. C. Wei, and Z. Lockman, “Extremely fast growth rate of TiO2 nanotube arrays in electrochemical bath containing H2O2,” Journal of the Electrochemical Society, vol. 158, no. 12, pp. C397–C402, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. C. W. Lai and S. Sreekantan, “Effect of applied potential on the formation of self-organized TiO2 nanotube arrays and its photoelectrochemical response,” Journal of Nanomaterials, vol. 2011, Article ID 142463, 7 pages, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. C. W. Lai and S. Sreekantan, “Photoelectrochemical performance of smooth TiO2 nanotube arrays: effect of anodization temperature and cleaning methods,” International Journal of Photoenergy, vol. 2012, Article ID 356943, 11 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  55. Y. Q. Wang, G. Q. Hu, X. F. Duan, H. L. Sun, and Q. K. Xue, “Microstructure and formation mechanism of titanium dioxide nanotubes,” Chemical Physics Letters, vol. 365, no. 5-6, pp. 427–431, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. M. Latroche, L. Brohan, R. Marchand, and M. Tournoux, “New hollandite oxides: TiO2(H) and K0.06TiO2,” Journal of Solid State Chemistry, vol. 81, no. 1, pp. 78–82, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. D. W. Meng, X. L. Wu, F. Sun et al., “High-pressure polymorphic transformation of rutile to α-PbO2-type TiO2 at {0 1 1}R twin boundaries,” Micron, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 280–286, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. A. Fujishima and K. Honda, “Electrochemical photolysis of water at a semiconductor electrode,” Nature, vol. 238, no. 5358, pp. 37–38, 1972. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. I. Paramasivam, Y.-C. Nah, C. Das, N. K. Shrestha, and P. Schmuki, “WO3/TiO2 nanotubes with strongly enhanced photocatalytic activity,” Chemistry—A European Journal, vol. 16, no. 30, pp. 8993–8997, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. J. Yan and F. Zhou, “TiO2 nanotubes: structure optimization for solar cells,” Journal of Materials Chemistry, vol. 21, no. 26, pp. 9406–9418, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. A. Kudo and Y. Miseki, “Heterogeneous photocatalyst materials for water splitting,” Chemical Society Reviews, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 253–278, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. B.-X. Lei, J.-Y. Liao, R. Zhang, J. Wang, C.-Y. Su, and D.-B. Kuang, “Ordered crystalline TiO2 nanotube arrays on transparent FTO glass for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells,” Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol. 114, no. 35, pp. 15228–15233, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. A. E. R. Mohamed and S. Rohani, “Modified TiO2 nanotube arrays (TNTAs): progressive strategies towards visible light responsive photoanode, a review,” Energy and Environmental Science, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 1065–1086, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. A. Michailowski, D. Almawlawi, G. Cheng, and M. Moskovits, “Highly regular anatase nanotubule arrays fabricated in porous anodic templates,” Chemical Physics Letters, vol. 349, no. 1-2, pp. 1–5, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. S. Kobayashi, N. Hamasaki, M. Suzuki, M. Kimura, H. Shirai, and K. Hanabusa, “Preparation of helical transition-metal oxide tubes using organogelators as structure-directing agents,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 124, no. 23, pp. 6550–6551, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. Z. R. Tian, J. A. Voigt, J. Liu et al., “Complex and oriented ZnO nanostructures,” Nature Materials, vol. 2, no. 12, pp. 821–826, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. D. V. Bavykin, V. N. Parmon, A. A. Lapkin, and F. C. Walsh, “The effect of hydrothermal conditions on the mesoporous structure of TiO2 nanotubes,” Journal of Materials Chemistry, vol. 14, no. 22, pp. 3370–3377, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. H.-K. Seo, G.-S. Kim, S. G. Ansari et al., “A study on the structure/phase transformation of titanate nanotubes synthesized at various hydrothermal temperatures,” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 92, no. 11, pp. 1533–1539, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. S. Sreekantan and L. C. Wei, “Study on the formation and photocatalytic activity of titanate nanotubes synthesized via hydrothermal method,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 490, no. 1-2, pp. 436–442, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. G. K. Mor, O. K. Varghese, M. Paulose, and C. A. Grimes, “Transparent highly ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays via anodization of titanium thin films,” Advanced Functional Materials, vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 1291–1296, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. C. W. Lai, S. Sreekantan, and Z. Lockman, “Photoelectrochemical behaviour of uniform growth TiO2 nanotubes via bubble blowing synthesised in ethylene glycol with hydrogen peroxide,” Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, vol. 12, pp. 4057–4066, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  72. J. H. Jung, H. Kobayashi, K. J. C. van Bommel, S. Shinkai, and T. Shimizu, “Creation of novel helical ribbon and double-layered nanotube TiO2 structures using an organogel template,” Chemistry of Materials, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 1445–1447, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. J. H. Jung, T. Shimizu, and S. Shinkai, “Self-assembling structures of steroidal derivatives in organic solvents and their sol-gel transcription into double-walled transition-metal oxide nanotubes,” Journal of Materials Chemistry, vol. 15, no. 35-36, pp. 3979–3986, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. Q. Ji, R. Iwaura, and T. Shimizu, “Regulation of silica nanotube diameters: sol-gel transcription using solvent-sensitive morphological change of peptidic lipid nanotubes as templates,” Chemistry of Materials, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 1329–1334, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. H. Imai, Y. Takei, K. Shimizu, M. Matsuda, and H. Hirashima, “Direct preparation of anatase TiO2 nanotubes in porous alumina membranes,” Journal of Materials Chemistry, vol. 9, no. 12, pp. 2971–2972, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. Z.-Y. Yuan and B.-L. Su, “Titanium oxide nanotubes, nanofibers and nanowires,” Colloids and Surfaces A, vol. 241, no. 1–3, pp. 173–183, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. T.-S. Kang, A. P. Smith, B. E. Taylor, and M. F. Durstock, “Fabrication of highly-ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays and their use in dye-sensitized solar cells,” Nano Letters, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 601–606, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. M. Yoshimura and K. Byrappa, “Hydrothermal processing of materials: past, present and future,” Journal of Materials Science, vol. 43, no. 7, pp. 2085–2103, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. M. Yada, Y. Inoue, M. Uota et al., “Formation of sodium titanate nanotube films by hydrothermal transcription,” Chemistry of Materials, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 364–366, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. A. Nakahira, T. Kubo, and C. Numako, “Formation mechanism of TiO2-derived titanate nanotubes prepared by the hydrothermal process,” Inorganic Chemistry, vol. 49, no. 13, pp. 5845–5852, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. F. Huang, H. Zhang, and J. F. Banfield, “The role of oriented attachment crystal growth in hydrothermal coarsening of nanocrystalline ZnS,” Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 107, no. 38, pp. 10470–10475, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. J.-N. Nian and H. Teng, “Hydrothermal synthesis of single-crystalline anatase TiO2 nanorods with nanotubes as the precursor,” Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 110, no. 9, pp. 4193–4198, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. N. Viriya-Empikul, N. Sano, T. Charinpanitkul, T. Kikuchi, and W. Tanthapanichakoon, “A step towards length control of titanate nanotubes using hydrothermal reaction with sonication pretreatment,” Nanotechnology, vol. 19, no. 3, Article ID 035601, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. J. M. Macak and P. Schmuki, “Anodic growth of self-organized anodic TiO2 nanotubes in viscous electrolytes,” Electrochimica Acta, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 1258–1264, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. J. M. Macak, H. Tsuchiya, A. Ghicov et al., “TiO2 nanotubes: self-organized electrochemical formation, properties and applications,” Current Opinion in Solid State and Materials Science, vol. 11, no. 1-2, pp. 3–18, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. V. K. Mahajan, M. Misra, K. S. Raja, and S. K. Mohapatra, “Self-organized TiO2 nanotubular arrays for photoelectrochemical hydrogen generation: effect of crystallization and defect structures,” Journal of Physics D, vol. 41, no. 12, Article ID 125307, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. C. W. Lai and S. Sreekantan, “Higher water splitting hydrogen generation rate for single crystalline anatase phase of TiO2 nanotube arrays,” The European Physical Journal—Applied Physics, vol. 59, no. 2, Article ID 20403, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  88. C. W. Lai and S. Sreekantan, “Photoelectrochemical properties of TiO2 nanotube arrays: effect of electrolyte pH and annealing temperature,” Journal of Experimental Nanoscience, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 230–239, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  89. M. Paulose, H. E. Prakasam, O. K. Varghese et al., “TiO2 nanotube arrays of 1000 μm length by anodization of titanium foil: phenol red diffusion,” Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol. 111, no. 41, pp. 14992–14997, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. G. K. Mor, O. K. Varghese, M. Paulose, K. Shankar, and C. A. Grimes, “A review on highly ordered, vertically oriented TiO2 nanotube arrays: fabrication, material properties, and solar energy applications,” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 90, no. 14, pp. 2011–2075, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. S. K. Mohapatra, M. Misra, V. K. Mahajan, and K. S. Raja, “Design of a highly efficient photoelectrolytic cell for hydrogen generation by water splitting: application of TiO2-xCx nanotubes as a photoanode and Pt/TiO2 nanotubes as a cathode,” Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol. 111, no. 24, pp. 8677–8685, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. J. M. Macak, H. Hildebrand, U. Marten-Jahns, and P. Schmuki, “Mechanistic aspects and growth of large diameter self-organized TiO2 nanotubes,” Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, vol. 621, no. 2, pp. 254–266, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. N. K. Allam and C. A. Grimes, “Effect of cathode material on the morphology and photoelectrochemical properties of vertically oriented TiO2 nanotube arrays,” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 92, no. 11, pp. 1468–1475, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. S. So, K. Lee, and P. Schmuki, “Ultrafast growth of highly ordered anodic TiO2 nanotubes in lactic acid electrolytes,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 134, pp. 11316–11318, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  95. S. K. Mohapatra, M. Misra, V. K. Mahajan, and K. S. Raja, “A novel method for the synthesis of titania nanotubes using sonoelectrochemical method and its application for photoelectrochemical splitting of water,” Journal of Catalysis, vol. 246, no. 2, pp. 362–369, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. D. R. Baker and P. V. Kamat, “Disassembly, reassembly, and photoelectrochemistry of etched TiO2 nanotubes,” Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol. 113, no. 41, pp. 17967–17972, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. P. Roy, S. Berger, and P. Schmuki, “TiO2 nanotubes: synthesis and applications,” Angewandte Chemie—International Edition, vol. 50, no. 13, pp. 2904–2939, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. X. Quan, S. Yang, X. Ruan, and H. Zhao, “Preparation of titania nanotubes and their environmental applications as electrode,” Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 39, no. 10, pp. 3770–3775, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. S. Xu, J. Ng, X. Zhang, H. Bai, and D. D. Sun, “Adsorption and photocatalytic degradation of acid orange 7 over hydrothermally synthesized mesoporous TiO2 nanotube,” Colloids and Surfaces A, vol. 379, no. 1–3, pp. 169–175, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. D. Y. C. Leung, X. Fu, C. Wang et al., “Hydrogen production over titania-based photocatalysts,” ChemSusChem, vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 681–694, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. H. Shon, S. Phuntsho, Y. Okour et al., “Visible light responsive titanium dioxide (TiO2),” Journal of the Korean Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 1–16, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. J. Wang, B. Huang, Z. Wang, X. Qin, and X. Zhang, “Synthesis and characterization of C, N-codoped TiO2 nanotubes/nanorods with visible-light activity,” Rare Metals, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 161–165, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. S. Komornicki, M. Radecka, and P. Sobaś, “Structural, electrical and optical properties of TiO2-WO3 polycrystalline ceramics,” Materials Research Bulletin, vol. 39, no. 13, pp. 2007–2017, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. S. Higashimoto, M. Sakiyama, and M. Azuma, “Photoelectrochemical properties of hybrid WO3/TiO2 electrode. Effect of structures of WO3 on charge separation behavior,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 503, no. 1-2, pp. 201–206, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  105. R. M. Navarro Yerga, M. C. Álvarez Galván, F. del Valle, J. A. Villoria de la Mano, and J. L. G. Fierro, “Water splitting on semiconductor catalysts under visiblelight irradiation,” ChemSusChem, vol. 2, no. 6, pp. 471–485, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  106. J. H. Bang and P. V. Kamat, “Solar cells by design: photoelectrochemistry of TiO2 nanorod arrays decorated with CdSe,” Advanced Functional Materials, vol. 20, no. 12, pp. 1970–1976, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  107. J. Zhang, Y. Wu, M. Xing, S. A. K. Leghari, and S. Sajjad, “Development of modified N doped TiO2 photocatalyst with metals, nonmetals and metal oxides,” Energy and Environmental Science, vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 715–726, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  108. C. W. Lai, S. Sreekantan, and S. E. Pei, “Effect of radio frequency sputtering power on W-TiO2 nanotubes to improve photoelectrochemical performance,” Journal of Material Research, vol. 27, no. 13, pp. 1695–1704, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  109. K. Maeda, A. Xiong, T. Yoshinaga et al., “Photocatalytic overall water splitting promoted by two different cocatalysts for hydrogen and oxygen evolution under visible light,” Angewandte Chemie—International Edition, vol. 49, no. 24, pp. 4096–4099, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  110. H. Li, X. Duan, G. Liu, and L. Li, “Synthesis and characterization of copper ions surface-doped titanium dioxide nanotubes,” Materials Research Bulletin, vol. 43, no. 8-9, pp. 1971–1981, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  111. S. K. Mohapatra, N. Kondamudi, S. Banerjee, and M. Misra, “Functionalization of self-organized TiO2 nanotubes with Pd nanoparticles for photocatalytic decomposition of dyes under solar light illumination,” Langmuir, vol. 24, no. 19, pp. 11276–11281, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  112. M. A. Khan, D. H. Han, and O.-B. Yang, “Enhanced photoresponse towards visible light in Ru doped titania nanotube,” Applied Surface Science, vol. 255, no. 6, pp. 3687–3690, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  113. L. Deng, S. Wang, D. Liu et al., “Synthesis, characterization of Fe-doped TiO2 nanotubes with high photocatalytic activity,” Catalysis Letters, vol. 129, no. 3-4, pp. 513–518, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  114. Y.-H. Xu, C. Chen, X.-L. Yang, X. Li, and B.-F. Wang, “Preparation, characterization and photocatalytic activity of the neodymium-doped TiO2 nanotubes,” Applied Surface Science, vol. 255, no. 20, pp. 8624–8628, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  115. M. Xiao, L. Wang, X. Huang, Y. Wu, and Z. Dang, “Synthesis and characterization of WO3/titanate nanotubes nanocomposite with enhanced photocatalytic properties,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 470, no. 1-2, pp. 486–491, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  116. C.-T. Hsieh, W.-S. Fan, W.-Y. Chen, and J.-Y. Lin, “Adsorption and visible-light-derived photocatalytic kinetics of organic dye on Co-doped titania nanotubes prepared by hydrothermal synthesis,” Separation and Purification Technology, vol. 67, no. 3, pp. 312–318, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  117. A. K. L. Sajjad, S. Shamaila, B. Tian, F. Chen, and J. Zhang, “Comparative studies of operational parameters of degradation of azo dyes in visible light by highly efficient WOx/TiO2 photocatalyst,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 177, no. 1–3, pp. 781–791, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  118. H.-H. Wu, L.-X. Deng, S.-R. Wang et al., “The preparation and characterization of la doped TiO2 nanotubes and their photocatalytic activity,” Journal of Dispersion Science and Technology, vol. 31, no. 10, pp. 1311–1316, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  119. Q. Ma, S. J. Liu, L. Q. Weng, Y. Liu, and B. Liu, “Growth, structure and photocatalytic properties of hierarchical Cu-Ti-O nanotube arrays by anodization,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 501, no. 2, pp. 333–338, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  120. C. Das, I. Paramasivam, N. Liu, and P. Schmuki, “Photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic activity of tungsten doped TiO2 nanotube layers in the near visible region,” Electrochimica Acta, vol. 56, no. 28, pp. 10557–10561, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  121. Y. Su and Y. Deng, “Effect of structure on the photocatalytic activity of Pt-doped TiO2 nanotubes,” Applied Surface Science, vol. 257, no. 23, pp. 9791–9795, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  122. Y. L. Pang and A. Z. Abdullah, “Effect of low Fe3+ doping on characteristics, sonocatalytic activity and reusability of TiO2 nanotubes catalysts for removal of Rhodamine B from water,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 235-236, pp. 326–335, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  123. Q. Wu, J. Ouyang, K. Xie, L. Sun, M. Wang, and C. Lin, “Ultrasound-assisted synthesis and visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity of Fe-incorporated TiO2 nanotube array photocatalysts,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 199-200, pp. 410–417, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  124. S. Sreekantan, C. W. Lai, and S. M. Zaki, “The influence of lead concentration on photocatalytic reduction of Pb(II) ions assisted by Cu-TiO2 nanotubes,” International Journal of Photoenergy, vol. 2014, Article ID 839106, 7 pages, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  125. T. S. Natarajan, K. Natarajan, H. C. Bajaj, and R. J. Tayade, “Enhanced photocatalytic activity of bismuth-doped TiO2 nanotubes under direct sunlight irradiation for degradation of Rhodamine B dye,” Journal of Nanoparticle Research, vol. 15, no. 5, article 1669, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  126. K. Shankar, G. K. Mor, A. Fitzgerald, and C. A. Grimes, “Cation effect on the electrochemical formation of very high aspect ratio TiO2 nanotube arrays in formamide-water mixtures,” Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol. 111, no. 1, pp. 21–26, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  127. T. Hathway, E. M. Rockafellow, Y.-C. Oh, and W. S. Jenks, “Photocatalytic degradation using tungsten-modified TiO2 and visible light: kinetic and mechanistic effects using multiple catalyst doping strategies,” Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A, vol. 207, no. 2-3, pp. 197–203, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  128. C. W. Lai and S. Sreekantan, “Single step formation of C-TiO2 nanotubes: influence of applied voltage and their photocatalytic activity under solar illumination,” International Journal of Photoenergy, vol. 2013, Article ID 276504, 8 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  129. X. Tang and D. Li, “Sulfur-doped highly ordered TiO2 nanotubular arrays with visible light response,” Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol. 112, no. 14, pp. 5405–5409, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  130. Y. Zhang, W. Fu, H. Yang et al., “Synthesis and characterization of P-doped TiO2 nanotubes,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 518, no. 1, pp. 99–103, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  131. J. J. Fan, L. Zhao, J. Yu, and G. Liu, “The effect of calcination temperature on the microstructure and photocatalytic activity of TiO2-based composite nanotubes prepared by an in situ template dissolution method,” Nanoscale, vol. 4, pp. 6597–6603, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  132. L. Dong, G. X. Cao, Y. Ma, X. L. Jia, G. T. Ye, and S. K. Guan, “Enhanced photocatalytic degradation properties of nitrogen-doped titania nanotube arrays,” Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 1583–1587, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  133. S. Liu, L. Yang, S. Xu, S. Luo, and Q. Cai, “Photocatalytic activities of C-N-doped TiO2 nanotube array/carbon nanorod composite,” Electrochemistry Communications, vol. 11, no. 9, pp. 1748–1751, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  134. Y.-K. Lai, J.-Y. Huang, H.-F. Zhang et al., “Nitrogen-doped TiO2 nanotube array films with enhanced photocatalytic activity under various light sources,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 184, no. 1–3, pp. 855–863, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  135. Y.-P. Peng, S.-L. Lo, H.-H. Ou, and S.-W. Lai, “Microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis of N-doped titanate nanotubes for visible-light-responsive photocatalysis,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 183, no. 1–3, pp. 754–758, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  136. H. Liu, G. Liu, and X. Shi, “N/Zr-codoped TiO2 nanotube arrays: fabrication, characterization, and enhanced photocatalytic activity,” Colloids and Surfaces A, vol. 363, no. 1–3, pp. 35–40, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  137. Z. He and H. Y. He, “Synthesis and photocatalytic property of N-doped TiO2 nanorods and nanotubes with high nitrogen content,” Applied Surface Science, vol. 258, no. 2, pp. 972–976, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  138. Y. Wang, G. Zhang, F. Zhang, and X. Fan, “Modified N doped TiO2 nanotubes with magnetic γ-Fe2O3 as visible light photocatalysts,” Advanced Materials Research, vol. 532-533, pp. 20–24, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  139. X. Lv, H. Zhang, and H. Chang, “Improved photocatalytic activity of highly ordered TiO2 nanowire arrays for methylene blue degradation,” Materials Chemistry and Physics, vol. 136, pp. 789–795, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  140. S. Lee, H. J. Oh, and C. S. Chi, “Effects of anodic voltages of photcatalytic TiO2 and doping in H2SO4 solutions on the photocatalytic activity,” Korean Journal of Materials Research, vol. 22, pp. 439–444, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  141. H. Liao, W. Zhang, X. Sun, L. Shi, and M. Qin, “Synthesis and photoelectrocatalytic property of two-nonmetal-codoped TiO2 nanotube arrays with high aspect ratio,” Advanced Materials Research, vol. 412, pp. 219–222, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  142. M. Dang, Y. Zhou, H. Li, and C. Lv, “Preparation and photocatalytic activity of N-doped TiO2 nanotube array films,” Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 320–324, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  143. J. Y. Wang, Z. H. Zhao, J. M. Fan, and L. X. Zhu, “One-pot hydrothermal synthesis of N-(S, F) co-doped titanium nanotubes and its visible light responsive photocatalytic properties,” Journal of Functional Materials, vol. 44, pp. 1502–1506, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  144. B. Yuan, Y. Wang, H. Bian, T. Shen, Y. Wu, and Z. Chen, “Nitrogen doped TiO2 nanotube arrays with high photoelectrochemical activity for photocatalytic applications,” Applied Surface Science, vol. 280, pp. 523–529, 2013. View at Google Scholar