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International Journal of Photoenergy
Volume 2014, Article ID 704839, 10 pages
Research Article

Enhanced Particle Swarm Optimization-Based Feeder Reconfiguration Considering Uncertain Large Photovoltaic Powers and Demands

1Department of Electrical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chungli City 320, Taiwan
2Department of Electrical Engineering, National Central University, Chungli City 320, Taiwan

Received 19 February 2014; Accepted 8 April 2014; Published 30 April 2014

Academic Editor: Ching-Song Jwo

Copyright © 2014 Ying-Yi Hong et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The Kyoto protocol recommended that industrialized countries limit their green gas emissions in 2012 to 5.2% below 1990 levels. Photovoltaic (PV) arrays provide clear and sustainable renewable energy to electric power systems. Solar PV arrays can be installed in distribution systems of rural and urban areas, as opposed to wind-turbine generators, which cause noise in surrounding environments. However, a large PV array (several MW) may incur several operation problems, for example, low power quality and reverse power. This work presents a novel method to reconfigure the distribution feeders in order to prevent the injection of reverse power into a substation connected to the transmission level. Moreover, a two-stage algorithm is developed, in which the uncertain bus loads and PV powers are clustered by fuzzy-c-means to gain representative scenarios; optimal reconfiguration is then achieved by a novel mean-variance-based particle swarm optimization. The system loss is minimized while the operational constraints, including reverse power and voltage variation, are satisfied due to the optimal feeder reconfiguration. Simulation results obtained from a 70-bus distribution system with 4 large PV arrays validate the proposed method.