Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Photoenergy
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 835760, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/835760
Research Article

Improvement of Dye Solar Cell Efficiency by Photoanode Posttreatment

1Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Istituto per lo Studio dei Materiali Nanostrutturati (ISMN), Via Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna, Italy
2Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Strada Costiera 11, 34151 Trieste, Italy
3Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade, Serbia
4Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Istituto per la Microelettronica e i Microsistemi (IMM), Via Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna, Italy

Received 11 April 2014; Revised 14 June 2014; Accepted 18 June 2014; Published 9 July 2014

Academic Editor: Maria da Graça P. Neves

Copyright © 2014 Tanja Ivanovska et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. B. O'Regan and M. Grätzel, “A low-cost, high-efficiency solar cell based on dye-sensitized colloidal TiO2 films,” Nature, vol. 353, pp. 737–740, 1991. View at Google Scholar
  2. M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, and E. D. Dunlop, “Solar cell efficiency tables,” Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 827–837, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. J. Krüger, U. Bach, and M. Grätzel, “Modification of TiO2 heterojunctions with benzoic acid derivatives in hybrid molecular solid-state devices,” Advanced Materials, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 447–451, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  4. C. Hsu, Y. Chen, R. Y. Lin, K. Ho, and J. T. Lin, “Solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells based on spirofluorene (spiro-OMeTAD) and arylamines as hole transporting materials,” Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, vol. 14, no. 41, pp. 14099–14109, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. M. M. Lee, J. Teuscher, T. Miyasaka, T. N. Murakami, and H. J. Snaith, “Efficient hybrid solar cells based on meso-superstructured organometal halide perovskites,” Science, vol. 338, no. 6107, pp. 643–647, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. J. Burschka, N. Pellet, S. Moon et al., “Sequential deposition as a route to high-performance perovskite-sensitized solar cells,” Nature, vol. 499, no. 7458, pp. 316–319, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. L. Qi, J. D. Sorge, and D. P. Birnie III, “Dye-sensitized solar cells based on TiO2 coatings with dual size-scale porosity,” Journal of the American Ceramic Society, vol. 92, no. 9, pp. 1921–1925, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. L. de Marco, M. Manca, R. Buonsanti et al., “High-quality photoelectrodes based on shape-tailored TiO2 nanocrystals for dye-sensitized solar cells,” Journal of Materials Chemistry, vol. 21, no. 35, pp. 13371–13379, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. Y. Ooyama and Y. Harima, “Photophysical and electrochemical properties, and molecular structures of organic dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells,” ChemPhysChem, vol. 13, no. 18, pp. 4032–4080, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. M. J. Griffith, K. Sunahara, P. Wagner et al., “Porphyrins for dye-sensitised solar cells: new insights into efficiency-determining electron transfer steps,” Chemical Communications, vol. 48, no. 35, pp. 4145–4162, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. A. Yella, H. W. Lee, H. N. Tsao et al., “Porphyrin-sensitized solar cells with cobalt (II/III)-based redox electrolyte exceed 12 percent efficiency,” Science, vol. 334, no. 6056, pp. 629–634, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. A. Abate, T. Leijtens, S. Pathak et al., “Lithium salts as “redox active” p-type dopants for organic semiconductors and their impact in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells,” Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 2572–2579, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. X. Dang, H. Yi, M. Ham et al., “Virus-templated self-assembled single-walled carbon nanotubes for highly efficient electron collection in photovoltaic devices,” Nature Nanotechnology, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 377–384, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. G. H. Guai, Y. Li, C. M. Ng, C. M. Li, and M. B. Chan-Park, “TiO2 composing with pristine, metallic or semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes: which gives the best performance for a dye-sensitized solar cell,” ChemPhysChem, vol. 13, no. 10, pp. 2566–2572, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. M.-J. Jeng, Y.-L. Wung, L.-B. Chang, and L. Chow, “Particle size effects of TiO2 on the solar efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells,” International Journal of Photoenergy, vol. 2013, Article ID 563897, 9 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  16. M. Dubey, M. Shrestha, Y. Zhong, D. Galipeau, and H. He, “TiO2 nanotube membranes on transparent conducting glass for high efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells,” Nanotechnology, vol. 22, no. 28, Article ID 285201, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  17. E. J. W. Crossland, N. Noel, V. Sivaram, T. Leijtens, J. A. Alexander-Webber, and H. J. Snaith, “Mesoporous TiO2 single crystals delivering enhanced mobility and optoelectronic device performance,” Nature, vol. 495, no. 7440, pp. 215–219, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. E. Palomares, J. N. Clifford, S. A. Haque, T. Lutz, and J. R. Durrant, “Control of charge recombination dynamics in dye sensitized solar cells by the use of conformally deposited metal oxide blocking layers,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 125, no. 2, pp. 475–482, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. F. Fabregat-Santiago, J. García-Cañadas, E. Palomares et al., “The origin of slow electron recombination processes in dye-sensitized solar cells with alumina barrier coatings,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 96, no. 11, pp. 6903–6907, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. M. Zalas and M. Klein, “The influence of titania electrode modification with lanthanide ions containing thin layer on the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells,” International Journal of Photoenergy, vol. 2012, Article ID 927407, 8 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. T. C. Li, M. S. Góes, F. Fabregat-Santiago et al., “Surface passivation of nanoporous TiO2 via atomic layer deposition of ZrO2 for solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell applications,” Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol. 113, no. 42, pp. 18385–18390, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. M. Wang, X. Li, H. Lin, P. Pechy, S. M. Zakeeruddin, and M. Grätzel, “Passivation of nanocrystalline TiO2 junctions by surface adsorbed phosphinate amphiphiles enhances the photovoltaic performance of dye sensitized solar cells,” Dalton Transactions, no. 45, pp. 10015–10020, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. W. Xu, S. Dai, L. Hu et al., “Influence of different surface modifications on the photovoltaic performance and dark current of dye-sensitized solar cells,” Plasma Science and Technology, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 556–559, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  24. L. Vesce, R. Riccitelli, G. Soscia, T. M. Brown, A. Di Carlo, and A. Reale, “Optimization of nanostructured titania photoanodes for dye-sensitized solar cells: Study and experimentation of TiCl4 treatment,” Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, vol. 356, no. 37–40, pp. 1958–1961, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. S.-W. Lee, K.-S. Ahn, K. Zhu, N. R. Neale, and A. J. Frank, “Effects of TiCl4 treatment of nanoporous TiO2 films on morphology, light harvesting, and charge-carrier dynamics in dye-sensitized solar cells,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol. 116, no. 40, pp. 21285–21290, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. P. M. Sommeling, B. C. O'Regan, R. R. Haswell et al., “Influence of a TiCl4 post-treatment on nanocrystalline TiO2 films in dye-sensitized solar cells,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 110, no. 39, pp. 19191–19197, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. B. C. O'Regan, J. R. Durrant, P. M. Sommeling, and N. J. Bakker, “Influence of the TiCl4 treatment on nanocrystalline TiO2 films in dye-sensitized solar cells. 2. Charge density, band edge shifts, and quantification of recombination losses at short circuit,” Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol. 111, no. 37, pp. 14001–14010, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. S. Ito, P. Liska, P. Comte et al., “Control of dark current in photoelectrochemical (TiO2/I-I3) and dye-sensitized solar cells,” Chemical Communications, no. 34, pp. 4351–4353, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. T. Rajh, A. E. Ostafin, O. I. Micic, D. M. Tiède, and M. C. Thurnauer, “Surface modification of small particle TiO2 colloids with cysteine for enhanced photochemical reduction: an EPR study,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry, vol. 100, no. 11, pp. 4538–4545, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. R. C. Thompson, “Oxidation of peroxotitanium(IV) by chlorine and cerium(IV) in acidic perchlorate solution,” Inorganic Chemistry, vol. 23, no. 13, pp. 1794–1798, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. G. H. Jeffery, J. Bassett, J. Mendham, and R. C. Denney, Vogel's Textbook of Quantitative Chemical Analysis, Wiley, New York, NY, USA, 5th edition, 1989.
  32. S. Kelly, F. H. Pollak, and M. Tomkiewicz, “Raman spectroscopy as a morphological probe for TiO2 aerogels,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 101, no. 14, pp. 2730–2734, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. T. Trupke, P. Würfel, and I. Uhlendorf, “Dependence of the photocurrent conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells on the incident light intensity,” Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 104, no. 48, pp. 11484–11488, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. D. Zhang, J. A. Downing, F. J. Knorr, and J. L. McHale, “Room-temperature preparation of nanocrystalline TiO2 films and the influence of surface properties on dye-sensitized solar energy conversion,” Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 110, no. 43, pp. 21890–21898, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. W. Liu, L. Hu, S. Dai, L. Guo, N. Jiang, and D. Kou, “The effect of the series resistance in dye-sensitized solar cells explored by electron transport and back reaction using electrical and optical modulation techniques,” Electrochimica Acta, vol. 55, no. 7, pp. 2338–2343, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. J. van de Lagemaat and A. J. Frank, “Nonthermalized electron transport in dye-sensitized nanocrystalline TiO2 films: transient photocurrent and random-walk modeling studies,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 105, no. 45, pp. 11194–11205, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. J. A. Anta, J. Nelson, and N. Quirke, “Charge transport model for disordered materials: application to sensitized TiO2,” Physical Review B, vol. 65, Article ID 125324, 10 pages, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  38. A. J. Frank, N. Kopidakis, and J. V. D. Lagemaat, “Electrons in nanostructured TiO2 solar cells: transport, recombination and photovoltaic properties,” Coordination Chemistry Reviews, vol. 248, no. 13-14, pp. 1165–1179, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. A. Zaban, M. Greenshtein, and J. Bisquert, “Determination of the electron lifetime in nanocrystalline dye solar cells by open-circuit voltage decay measurements,” ChemPhysChem, vol. 4, no. 8, pp. 859–864, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. J. Bisquert, A. Zaban, M. Greenshtein, and I. Mora-Seró, “Determination of rate constants for charge transfer and the distribution of semiconductor and electrolyte electronic energy levels in dye-sensitized solar cells by open-circuit photovoltage decay method,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 126, no. 41, pp. 13550–13559, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. S. Kambe, S. Nakade, T. Kitamura, Y. Wada, and S. Yanagida, “Influence of the electrolytes on electron transport in mesoporous TiO2-electrolyte systems,” Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 106, no. 11, pp. 2967–2972, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. S. Nakade, T. Kanzaki, W. Kubo, T. Kitamura, Y. Wada, and S. Yanagida, “Role of electrolytes on charge recombination in dye-sensitized TiO2 solar cell (1): the case of solar cells using the I-/I3- redox couple,” Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 109, no. 8, pp. 3480–3487, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. R. Li, J. Liu, N. Cai, M. Zhang, and P. Wang, “Synchronously reduced surface states, charge recombination, and light absorption length for high-performance organic dye-sensitized solar cells,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 114, no. 13, pp. 4461–4464, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. P. J. Cameron and L. M. Peter, “How does back-reaction at the conducting glass substrate influence the dynamic photovoltage response of nanocrystalline dye-sensitized solar cells?” Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 109, no. 15, pp. 7392–7398, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus