Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Photoenergy
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 958521, 17 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/958521
Review Article

A Review of Solar Photovoltaic Concentrators

1Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Eastern Mediterranean University, Famagusta, North Cyprus, Via Mersin 10, Turkey
2Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Concordia, Montreal, QC, Canada H4B 1R6

Received 5 March 2014; Revised 12 April 2014; Accepted 26 April 2014; Published 19 June 2014

Academic Editor: Dimitrios Karamanis

Copyright © 2014 Mehrdad Khamooshi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. D. Abbott, “Keeping the energy debate clean: how do we supply the world's energy needs?” Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 98, no. 1, pp. 42–66, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. P. E. Glaser, “Power from the sun: its future,” Science, vol. 162, no. 3856, pp. 857–861, 1968. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. B. Mendoza, “Total solar irradiance and climate,” in Fundamentals of Space Environment Science, V. Jatenco-Pereira, A. C.-L. Chian, J. F. Valdes-Galicia, and M. A. Shea, Eds., pp. 882–890, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  4. H. Mousazadeh, A. Keyhani, A. Javadi, H. Mobli, K. Abrinia, and A. Sharifi, “A review of principle and sun-tracking methods for maximizing solar systems output,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 1800–1818, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. A. Lewandowski and D. Simms, “An assessment of linear Fresnel lens concentrators for thermal applications,” Energy, vol. 12, no. 3-4, pp. 333–338, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. J. O'Gallagher and R. Winston, “Performance model for two-stage optical concentrators for solar thermal applications,” Solar Energy, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 319–325, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. J. Xiao, X. Wei, Z. Lu, W. Yu, and H. Wu, “A review of available methods for surface shape measurement of solar concentrator in solar thermal power applications,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 2539–2544, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. D. Feuermann, J. M. Gordon, and M. Huleihil, “Light leakage in optical fibers: experimental results, modeling and the consequences for remote lighting and solar concentrator systems,” in Nonimaging Optics: Maximum Efficiency Light Transfer VI, R. Winston, Ed., pp. 65–75, August 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. A. Garcia-Botella, D. Vazquez, and E. Bcrnabeu, “A new concentrator-collimator lighting system using LED technology,” Journal of the Illuminating Engineering Society, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 135–140, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. A. García-Botella, D. Vázquez, and E. Bernabeu, “Geometric and thermal design for a new concentrator-collimator lighting system based on LED technology,” Metrologia, vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 607–610, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. H. Arashi, D. Cooke, and H. Naito, “Fivefold increase in solar laser output with a nonimaging concentrator,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics 1: Regular Papers & Short Notes & Review Papers, vol. 34, no. 9A, pp. 4795–4798, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. H. Arashi, Y. Kaneda, and M. Ishigame, “A solar-pumped laser using a large solar concentrator,” in Clean and Safe Energy Forever, T. Horigome, K. Kimura, T. Takakura, T. Nishino, and I. Fujii, Eds., vol. 1–3, pp. 445–449, Pergamon Press, 1990. View at Google Scholar
  13. S. A. Bakhramov, S. D. Payziyev, S. I. Klychev, A. K. Kasimov, and A. A. Abdurakhmanov, “Laser on the big solar concentrator,” in Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Advanced Optoelectronics and Lasers (CAOL '05), I. A. Sukhoivanov, Ed., vol. 1, pp. 109–111, September 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. V. Krupkin, G. Thompson, A. Yogev, and M. Oron, “Compound parabolical concentrator as pumping device for solid state solar lasers,” in 8th Meeting on Optical Engineering in Israel: Optical Engineering and Remote Sensing, M. Oron, I. Shladov, and Y. Weissman, Eds., vol. 1971 of Proceedings of SPIE, pp. 400–407, December 1992. View at Scopus
  15. M. Lando, J. Kagan, and B. Linyekin, “38-watt Nd:YAG laser pumped by a 6.85 m2 target-aligned solar concentrator,” in Electro-Optics and Microelectronics, R. Lavi and E. Azoulay, Eds., pp. 33–36, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  16. W. Villasmil and A. Steinfeld, “Hydrogen production by hydrogen sulfide splitting using concentrated solar energy—thermodynamics and economic evaluation,” Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 51, no. 11, pp. 2353–2361, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. A. Z'Graggen, P. Haueter, G. Maag, M. Romero, and A. Steinfeld, “Hydrogen production by steam-gasification of carbonaceous materials using concentrated solar energy—IV. Reactor experimentation with vacuum residue,” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 679–684, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. A. Z'Graggen, P. Haueter, G. Maag, A. Vidal, M. Romero, and A. Steinfeld, “Hydrogen production by steam-gasification of petroleum coke using concentrated solar power—III. Reactor experimentation with slurry feeding,” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol. 32, no. 8, pp. 992–996, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. B. Parida, S. Iniyan, and R. Goic, “A review of solar photovoltaic technologies,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 1625–1636, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. R. McConnell, S. Kurtz, and M. Symko-Davies, “Concentrator photovoltaic technologies,” Refocus, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 35–39, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. A. Luque and V. Andreev, Concentrator Photovoltaics, Springer, Heidelberg, Germany, 2007.
  22. R. M. Swanson, “The promise of concentrators,” Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 93–111, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  23. V. Andreev, V. D. Rumyantsev, and V. A. Grilikhes, Photovoltaic Conversion of Concentrated Sunlight, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, UK, 1997.
  24. P. Pérez-Higueras, E. Muñoz, G. Almonacid, and P. G. Vidal, “High Concentrator PhotoVoltaics efficiencies: present status and forecast,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 1810–1815, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. S. J. Gallagher, B. Norton, and P. C. Eames, “Quantum dot solar concentrators: electrical conversion efficiencies and comparative concentrating factors of fabricated devices,” Solar Energy, vol. 81, no. 6, pp. 813–821, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. J. Lushetsky, Accelerating Innovation in Solar Technologies Overview of the DOE Solar Energy Technology Program, US Department of Energy: Solar Energy Technologies Program, 2008.
  27. B. A. Butler, E. E. van Dyk, F. J. Vorster, W. Okullo, M. K. Munji, and P. Booysen, “Characterization of a low concentrator photovoltaics module,” Physica B: Condensed Matter, vol. 407, no. 10, pp. 1501–1504, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. R. Winston, J. J. O'Gallagher, and R. Gee, “Nonimaging solar concentrator with uniform irradiance,” in Nonimaging Optics and Efficient Illumination Systems, R. Winston and R. J. Koshel, Eds., pp. 237–239, August 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. A. Garcia-Botella, A. A. Fernandez-Balbuena, D. Vázquez, and E. Bernabeu, “Ideal 3D asymmetric concentrator,” Solar Energy, vol. 83, no. 1, pp. 113–117, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. W. T. Xie, Y. J. Dai, R. Z. Wang, and K. Sumathy, “Concentrated solar energy applications using Fresnel lenses: a review,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 2588–2606, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. R. Leutz and A. Suzuki, Nonimaging Fresnel Lenses: Design and Performance of Solar Concentrators, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 2001.
  32. R. Leutz, A. Suzuki, A. Akisawa, and T. Kashiwagi, “Developments and designs of solar engineering Fresnel lenses,” in Proceedings of the Symposium on Energy Engineering, Hong Kong, 2000.
  33. C. Sierra and A. J. Vázquez, “High solar energy concentration with a Fresnel lens,” Journal of Materials Science, vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 1339–1343, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. D. C. Miller and S. R. Kurtz, “Durability of Fresnel lenses: a review specific to the concentrating photovoltaic application,” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 95, no. 8, pp. 2037–2068, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. E. Lorenzo and A. Luque, “Fresnel lens analysis for solar energy applications,” Applied Optics, vol. 20, no. 17, pp. 2941–2945, 1981. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. M. M. Valmiki, P. Li, J. Heyer et al., “A novel application of a Fresnel lens for a solar stove and solar heating,” Renewable Energy, vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 1614–1620, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. J. M. Monteagudo and A. Durán, “Fresnel lens to concentrate solar energy for the photocatalytic decoloration and mineralization of orange II in aqueous solution,” Chemosphere, vol. 65, no. 7, pp. 1242–1248, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. Y. Chen, “The continuous production of fresnel lens and a discussion on its application in solar building Chen Yike,” in Proceedings of ISES World Congress 2007, D. Y. Goswami and Y. W. Zhao, Eds., vol. 1–5, pp. 323–326, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. T. Ohkubo, T. Yabe, K. Yoshida et al., “Solar-pumped 80 W laser irradiated by a Fresnel lens,” Optics Letters, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 175–177, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. T. Yabe, B. Bagheri, T. Ohkubo et al., “100 W-class solar pumped laser for sustainable magnesium-hydrogen energy cycle,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 104, no. 8, Article ID 083104, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. T. Yabe, T. Ohkubo, S. Uchida et al., “High-efficiency and economical solar-energy-pumped laser with Fresnel lens and chromium codoped laser medium,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 90, no. 26, Article ID 261120, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. Y. Tripanagnostopoulos, C. Siabekou, and J. K. Tonui, “The Fresnel lens concept for solar control of buildings,” Solar Energy, vol. 81, no. 5, pp. 661–675, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. A. Tsangrassoulis, L. Doulos, M. Santamouris et al., “On the energy efficiency of a prototype hybrid daylighting system,” Solar Energy, vol. 79, no. 1, pp. 56–64, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. C. Sierra, E. Michie, and A. J. Vázquez, “Production improvement of NiAl coatings achieved by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis with concentrated solar energy,” Revista de Metalurgia, pp. 469–474, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. C. Sierra and A. J. Vázquez, “NiAl coatings on carbon steel by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis assisted with concentrated solar energy: mass influence on adherence and porosity,” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 86, no. 1, pp. 33–42, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. C. Sierra and A. J. Vázquez, “NiAl coating on carbon steel with an intermediate Ni gradient layer,” Surface & Coatings Technology, vol. 200, no. 14-15, pp. 4383–4388, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. Y. Nakata, N. Shibuya, T. Kobe, K. Okamoto, A. Suzuki, and T. Tsuji, “Performance of circular Fresnel lens photovoltaic concentrator,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 19, pp. 75–78, 1980. View at Google Scholar
  48. S. Harmon, “Solar-optical analyses of a mass-produced plastic circular Fresnel lens,” Solar Energy, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 105–108, 1977. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. G. R. Whitfield, R. W. Bentley, C. K. Weatherby et al., “The development and testing of small concentrating PV systems,” Solar Energy, vol. 67, no. 1–3, pp. 23–34, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. F. Franc, V. Jirka, M. Malý, and B. Nábělek, “Concentrating collectors with flat linear fresnel lenses,” Solar and Wind Technology, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 77–84, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. D. Gerion, F. Pinaud, S. C. Williams et al., “Synthesis and properties of biocompatible water-soluble silica-coated CdSe/ZnS semiconductor quantum dots,” Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 105, no. 37, pp. 8861–8871, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. O. I. Mićić, H. M. Cheong, H. Fu et al., “Size-dependent spectroscopy of InP quantum dots,” Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 101, no. 25, pp. 4904–4912, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. R. Reisfeld and C. K. Jorgensen, “Luminescent solar concentrators for energy conversion,” Structure and Bonding, vol. 49, pp. 1–36, 1982. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. K. Barnham, J. L. Marques, J. Hassard, and P. O'Brien, “Quantum-dot concentrator and thermodynamic model for the global redshift,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 76, no. 9, pp. 1197–1199, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. V. Wittwer, K. Heidler, A. Zastrow, and A. Goetzberger, “Theory of fluorescent planar concentrators and experimental results,” Journal of Luminescence, vol. 24-25, no. 2, pp. 873–876, 1981. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. A. Goetzberger, W. Stahl, and V. Wittwer, “Physical limitations of the concentration of direct and diffuse radiation,” in Proceedings of the 6th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Reidel, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1985.
  57. A. P. Alivisatos, “Perspectives on the physical chemistry of semiconductor nanocrystals,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry, vol. 100, no. 31, pp. 13226–13239, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. A. Schüler, M. Python, M. V. del Olmo, and E. de Chambrier, “Quantum dot containing nanocomposite thin films for photoluminescent solar concentrators,” Solar Energy, vol. 81, no. 9, pp. 1159–1165, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. K. R. Kumar and K. S. Reddy, “Effect of porous disc receiver configurations on performance of solar parabolic trough concentrator,” Heat and Mass Transfer, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 555–571, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. J. A. Clark, “An analysis of the technical and economic performance of a parabolic trough concentrator for solar industrial process heat application,” International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, vol. 25, no. 9, pp. 1427–1438, 1982. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. K.-J. Riffelmann, A. Neumann, and S. Ulmer, “Performance enhancement of parabolic trough collectors by solar flux measurement in the focal region,” Solar Energy, vol. 80, no. 10, pp. 1303–1313, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. S. A. Omer and D. G. Infield, “Design and thermal analysis of a two stage solar concentrator for combined heat and thermoelectric power generation,” Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 41, no. 7, pp. 737–756, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. M. A. Al-Nimr and M. K. Alkam, “A modified tubeless solar collector partially filled with porous substrate,” Renewable Energy, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 165–173, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. K. R. Kumar and K. S. Reddy, “Thermal analysis of solar parabolic trough with porous disc receiver,” Applied Energy, vol. 86, no. 9, pp. 1804–1812, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. S. D. Odeh, G. L. Morrison, and M. Behnia, “Modelling of parabolic trough direct steam generation solar collectors,” Solar Energy, vol. 62, no. 6, pp. 395–406, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. K. S. Reddy, K. R. Kumar, and G. V. Satyanarayana, “Numerical investigation of energy-efficient receiver for solar parabolic trough concentrator,” Heat Transfer Engineering, vol. 29, no. 11, pp. 961–972, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. K. S. Reddy and G. V. Satyanarayana, “Numerical study of porous finned receiver for solar parabolic trough concentrator,” Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 172–184, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  68. Q.-C. Zhang, K. Zhao, B.-C. Zhang et al., “New cermet solar coatings for solar thermal electricity applications,” Solar Energy, vol. 64, no. 1–3, pp. 109–114, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. A. Rabl, Active Solar Collectors and Their Applications, Oxford University Press, New York, NY, USA, 1985.
  70. F. Kreith and J. E. Kreider, Principles of Solar Engineering, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, USA, 1978.
  71. J. A. Duffie and W. A. Beckman, Solar Engineering of Thermal Processes, John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ, USA, 2006.
  72. F. Kreith and J. E. Kreider, Principles of Solar Engineering, Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, Washington, DC, USA, 1978.
  73. A. Suzuki and S. Kobayashi, “Yearly distributed insolation model and optimum design of a two dimensional compound parabolic concentrator,” Solar Energy, vol. 54, no. 5, pp. 327–331, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. S. Senthilkumar, K. Perumal, and P. S. S. Srinivasan, “Construction and performance analysis of a three dimensional compound parabolic concentrator for a spherical absorber,” Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, vol. 66, no. 7, pp. 558–564, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. N. Yehezkel, J. Appelbaum, A. Yogev, and M. Oron, “Losses in a three-dimensional compound parabolic concentrator as a second stage of a solar concentrator,” Solar Energy, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 45–51, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. A.-J. N. Khalifa and S. S. Al-Mutawalli, “Effect of two-axis sun tracking on the performance of compound parabolic concentrators,” Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 39, no. 10, pp. 1073–1079, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. T. K. Mallick, P. C. Eames, T. J. Hyde, and B. Norton, “The design and experimental characterisation of an asymmetric compound parabolic photovoltaic concentrator for building façade integration in the UK,” Solar Energy, vol. 77, no. 3, pp. 319–327, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. X. Ning, R. Winston, and J. O'Gallagher, “Dielectric totally internally reflecting concentrators,” Applied Optics, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 300–305, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. X. H. Ning, “Application of nonimaging optical concentrators to infrared energy detection,” in Nonimaging Optics: Maximum Efficiency Light Transfer, vol. 1528 of Proceedings of SPIE, p. 88, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  80. R. Ramirez-Iniguez and R. Green, “Elliptical and parabolic totally internally reflecting optical antennas for wireless infrared communications,” in Proceedings of the IrDA/IEE/IEEE Conference on Optical Wireless, Warwick University, 2003.
  81. R. Ramirez-Iniguez and R. J. Green, “Optical antenna design for indoor optical wireless communication systems,” International Journal of Communication Systems, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 229–245, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. X. H. Ning, J. O'Gallagher, and R. Winston, “Optics of two-stage photovoltaic concentrators with dielectric second stages,” Applied Optics, vol. 26, no. 7, pp. 1207–1212, 1987. View at Google Scholar
  83. F. Muhammad-Sukki, R. Ramirez-Iniguez, S. G. McMeekin, B. G. Stewart, and B. Clive, “Optimised dielectric totally internally reflecting concentrator for the solar photonic optoelectronic transformer system: maximum concentration method,” in Knowledge-Based and Intelligent Information and Engineering Systems, R. Setchi, I. Jordanov, R. J. Howlett, and L. C. Jain, Eds., vol. 6279 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp. 633–641, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. M. F. Piszczor and R. P. Macosko, “A high-efficiency refractive secondary solar concentrator for high temperature solar thermal applications,” Technical Memorandum, NASA, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  85. F. Muhammad-Sukki, S. H. Abu-Bakar, R. Ramirez-Iniguez et al., “Mirror symmetrical dielectric totally internally reflecting concentrator for building integrated photovoltaic systems,” Applied Energy, vol. 113, pp. 32–40, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. I. M. S. Ali, T. K. Mallick, P. A. Kew, T. S. O'Donovan, and K. S. Reddy, “Optical performance evaluation of a 2-D and 3-D novel hyperboloid solar concentrator,” in Proceedings of the 11th World Renewable Energy Congress, Abu Dhabi, UAE, 2010.
  87. F. Muhammad-Sukki, R. Ramirez-Iniguez, S. G. McMeekin, B. G. Stewart, and B. Clive, “Solar concentrators,” International Journal of Applied Sciences, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 1–15, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  88. N. Sellami, T. K. Mallick, and D. A. McNeil, “Optical characterisation of 3-D static solar concentrator,” Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 64, pp. 579–586, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. A. García-Botella, A. Á. Fernández-Balbuena, D. Vázquez, E. Bernabeu, and A. González-Cano, “Hyperparabolic concentrators,” Applied Optics, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 712–715, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. J. M. Gordon, “Complementary construction of ideal nonimaging concentrators and its applications,” Applied Optics, vol. 35, no. 28, pp. 5677–5682, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. C.-F. Chen, C.-H. Lin, H.-T. Jan, and Y.-L. Yang, “Design of a solar concentrator combining paraboloidal and hyperbolic mirrors using ray tracing method,” Optics Communications, vol. 282, no. 3, pp. 360–366, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. I. M. Saleh Ali, T. Srihari Vikram, T. S. O’Donovan, K. S. Reddy, and T. K. Mallick, “Design and experimental analysis of a static 3-D elliptical hyperboloid concentrator for process heat applications,” Solar Energy, vol. 102, pp. 257–266, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  93. J. C. Minano, J. C. Gonzalez, and I. Zanesco, “Flat high concentration devices,” in Proceedings of the 24th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, vol. 1-2, pp. 1123–1126, IEEE, New York, NY, USA, December 1994. View at Scopus
  94. R. Winston, J. C. Minano, and P. Benitez, Nonimaging Optics, Elsevier Academic Press, San Diego, Calif, USA, 2005.
  95. J. C. Minano, J. C. Gonzalez, and P. Benitez, “A high-gain, compact, nonimaging concentrator: RXI,” Applied Optics, vol. 34, no. 34, pp. 7850–7856, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  96. J. C. Minano, P. Benitez, and J. C. Gonzalez, “RX: a nonimaging concentrator,” Applied Optics, vol. 34, no. 13, pp. 2226–2235, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  97. P. Benitez and J. C. Minano, “Analysis of the image formation capability of RX concentrators,” in Nonimaging Optics: Maximum Efficiency Light Transfer III, R. Winston, Ed., vol. 2538, pp. 73–84, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  98. J. C. Minano, J. C. Gonzalez, and P. Benitez, “New nonimaging designs: the RX and the RXI concentrators,” in Nonimaging Optics: Maximum-Efficiency Light Transfer II, R. Winston and R. L. Holman, Eds., vol. 2016 of Proceedings of SPIE, pp. 120–127, 1993.
  99. I. Peterina, A. B. Cueli, J. Díaz, J. Moracho, and A. R. Lagunas, “CENER experience testing CPV modules,” Energetica International, no. 123, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  100. V. L. Dalal and A. R. Moore, “Design considerations for high-intensity solar cell,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 48, no. 3, p. 8, 1977. View at Google Scholar
  101. D. J. Mbewe, H. C. Card, and D. C. Card, “A model of silicon solar cells for concentrator photovoltaic and photovoltaic/thermal system design,” Solar Energy, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 247–258, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. A. Royne, C. J. Dey, and D. R. Mills, “Cooling of photovoltaic cells under concentrated illumination: a critical review,” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 86, no. 4, pp. 451–483, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. G. Sala, “Cooling of solar cells,” in Cells and Optics for Photovoltaic Concentration, A. Hilger, Ed., pp. 239–267, Adam Hilger, Bristol, UK, 1989. View at Google Scholar
  104. I. Anton, G. Sala, and D. Pachon, “Correction of the Voc vs. temperature dependence under non-uniform concentrated illumination,” in Proceedings of the 17th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, pp. 156–159, Munich, Germany, 2001.
  105. A. Cheknane, B. Benyoucef, and A. Chaker, “Performance of concentrator solar cells with passive cooling,” Semiconductor Science and Technology, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 144–147, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  106. F. Chenlo and M. Cid, “A linear concentrator photovoltaic module: analysis of non-uniform illumination and temperature effects on efficiency,” Solar Cells, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 27–39, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  107. A. Luque, G. Sala, and J. C. Arboiro, “Electric and thermal model for non-uniformly illuminated concentration cells,” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 51, no. 3-4, pp. 269–290, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  108. R. K. Mathur, D. R. Mehrotra, S. Mittal, and S. R. Dhariwal, “Thermal non-uniformities in concentrator solar cells,” Solar Cells, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 175–188, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  109. R. W. Sanderson, D. T. O'Donnell, and C. E. Backus, “The effects of nonuniform illumination and temperature profiles on silicon solar cells under concentrated sunlight,” in Proceedings of the 14th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC '80), pp. 431–436, January 1980. View at Scopus
  110. A. D. Kraus and A. Bar-Cohen, Design and Analysis of Heat Sinks, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA, 1st edition, 1995.
  111. W. G. Anderson, P. M. Dussinger, D. B. Sarraf, and S. Tamanna, “Heat pipe cooling of concentrating photovoltaic cells,” in Proceedings of the 33rd IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC '08), May 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  112. P. D. Dunn and D. A. Reay, Heat Pipes, Elsevier Science, Tarrytown, NY, USA, 4th edition, 1994.
  113. W. G. Anderson, “Intermediate temperature fluids for heat pipes and LHPs,” in Proceedings of the 5th International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC '07), AIAA, St. Louis, Mo, USA, 2007.
  114. A. Akbarzadeh and T. Wadowski, “Heat pipe-based cooling systems for photovoltaic cells under concentrated solar radiation,” Applied Thermal Engineering, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 81–87, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  115. W. E. Horne, “Solar energy system,” US patent no. 5269851, 1993.
  116. R. F. Russell, “Uniform temperature heat pipe and method of using the same,” US patent no. 4320246, 1982.
  117. B. Du, E. Hu, and M. Kolhe, “Performance analysis of water cooled concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) system,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 16, no. 9, pp. 6732–6736, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  118. M. A. Farahat, “Improvement the thermal electric performance of a photovoltaic cells by cooling and concentration techniques,” in Proceedings of the 39th International Universities Power Engineering Conference (UPEC '04), pp. 623–628, September 2004. View at Scopus
  119. W.-G. Geng, L. Gao, M. Shao, and X.-Y. Li, “Numerical and experimental study on cooling high-concentration photovoltaic cells with oscillating heat pipe,” International Journal of Low-Carbon Technologies, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 168–173, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  120. K.-K. Chong and W.-C. Tan, “Study of automotive radiator cooling system for dense-array concentration photovoltaic system,” Solar Energy, vol. 86, no. 9, pp. 2632–2643, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  121. I. K. Karathanassis, E. Papanicolaou, V. Belessiotis, and G. C. Bergeles, “Multi-objective design optimization of a micro heat sink for Concentrating Photovoltaic/Thermal (CPVT) systems using a genetic algorithm,” Applied Thermal Engineering, vol. 59, no. 1-2, pp. 733–744, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  122. K. H. Do, T. H. Kim, Y.-S. Han, B.-I. Choi, and M.-B. Kim, “General correlation of a natural convective heat sink with plate-fins for high concentrating photovoltaic module cooling,” Solar Energy, vol. 86, no. 9, pp. 2725–2734, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  123. M. W. Edenburn, “Active and passive cooling for concentrating photovoltaic arrays,” in Proceedings of the 14th Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, pp. 771–776, San Diego, Calif, USA, January 1980. View at Scopus
  124. S. K. Natarajan, T. K. Mallick, M. Katz, and S. Weingaertner, “Numerical investigations of solar cell temperature for photovoltaic concentrator system with and without passive cooling arrangements,” International Journal of Thermal Sciences, vol. 50, no. 12, pp. 2514–2521, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  125. K. R. Kumar and K. S. Reddy, “Investigation of heat transfer characteristics of line focus receiver with porous disc inserts for solar parabolic trough concentrator,” in Proceedings of the 20th National and 9th International ISHMT-ASME Heat and Mass Transfer Conference, Mumbai, India, 2010.
  126. G. V. Satyanarayana, K. R. Kumar, and K. S. Reddy, “Numerical study of porous enhanced receiver for solar parabolic trough collector,” in Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Solar Radiation and Day Lighting, New Delhi, India, 2007.
  127. E. Drabiniok and A. Neyer, “Bionic micro porous evaporation foil for photovoltaic cell cooling,” Microelectronic Engineering, vol. 119, pp. 65–69, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  128. Y. Sun, Y. Wang, L. Zhu, B. Yin, H. Xiang, and Q. Huang, “Direct liquid-immersion cooling of concentrator silicon solar cells in a linear concentrating photovoltaic receiver,” Energy, vol. 65, pp. 264–271, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  129. H. G. Teo, P. S. Lee, and M. N. A. Hawlader, “An active cooling system for photovoltaic modules,” Applied Energy, vol. 90, no. 1, pp. 309–315, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  130. J. Ji, Y. Wang, T.-T. Chow, H. Chen, and G. Pei, “A jet impingement/channel receiver for cooling densely packed photovoltaic cells under a paraboloidal dish solar concentrator,” Heat Transfer Research, vol. 43, no. 8, pp. 767–778, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  131. S. A. Brideau and M. R. Collins, “Development and validation of a hybrid PV/Thermal air based collector model with impinging jets,” Solar Energy, vol. 102, pp. 234–246, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  132. C. A. Mgbemene, J. Duffy, H. Sun, and S. O. Onyegegbu, “Electricity generation from a compound parabolic concentrator coupled to a thermoelectric module,” Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, vol. 132, no. 3, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  133. P. D. Menghani, R. R. Udawant, A. M. Funde, and S. V. Dingare, “Low pressure steam generation by solar energy withfresnel lens: a review,” IOSR Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering, vol. 5, pp. 60–63, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  134. O. E. Miller, J. H. Mcleod, and W. T. Sherwood, “Thin sheet plastic Fresnel lenses of high aperture,” Journal of the Optical Society of America, vol. 41, no. 11, p. 8, 1951. View at Google Scholar
  135. S. Malato, J. Blanco, A. Vidal, and C. Richter, “Photocatalysis with solar energy at a pilot-plant scale: an overview,” Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 1–15, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  136. G.-L. Dai, X.-L. Xia, C. Sun, and H.-C. Zhang, “Numerical investigation of the solar concentrating characteristics of 3D CPC and CPC-DC,” Solar Energy, vol. 85, no. 11, pp. 2833–2842, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  137. E. Hossain, R. Muhida, A. F. Dzulkipli, and K. A. A. Rahman, “Solar cell efficiency improvement using compound parabolic concentrator and an implementation of sun tracking system,” in Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer and Information Technology (ICCIT '08), vol. 1-2, pp. 723–728, December 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  138. A. Terao, W. P. Mulligan, S. G. Daroczi et al., “A mirror-less design for micro-concentrator modules,” in Proceedings of the 28th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, pp. 1416–1419, 2000.
  139. J. B. Lasich, A. Cleeve, N. Kaila et al., “Close-packed cell arrays for dish concentrators,” in Proceedings of the 24th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, pp. 1938–1941, December 1994. View at Scopus
  140. N. Kaminar, J. McEntree, P. Stark, and D. Curchod, “SEA 10X concentrator development progress,” in Proceedings of the 22nd IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, pp. 529–532, October 1991. View at Scopus
  141. J. L. Alvarez, M. Hernandez, P. Benitez, and J. C. Minano, “Experimental measurements of RXI concentrators for photovoltaic applications,” in Proceedings of the 2nd World Conference and Exhibition on Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conversion, Vienna, Austria, 1998.
  142. M. Brunotte, A. Goetzberger, and U. Blieske, “Two-stage concentrator permitting concentration factors up to 300X with one-axis tracking,” Solar Energy, vol. 56, no. 3, pp. 285–300, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  143. M. J. O'Neill and A. J. McDanal, “Fourth-generation concentrator system: from the lab to the factory to the field,” in Proceedings of the 24th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, pp. 816–819, December 1994. View at Scopus
  144. G. Sala, J. C. Arboiro, A. Luque et al., “480 kW peak EUCLIDES concentrator power plant using parabolic troughs,” in Proceedings of the 2nd World Conference and Exhibition on Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conversion, Vienna, Austria, 1998.
  145. A. W. Blakers and J. Smeltink, “The ANU PV/trough concentrator system,” in Proceedings of the 2nd World Conference on Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conversion, Vienna, Austria, 1998.
  146. V. Garboushian, S. Yoon, G. Turner, A. Gunn, and D. Fair, “A novel high-concentration PV technology for cost competitive utility bulk power generation,” in Proceedings of the 1st World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, pp. 1060–1063, Waikoloa, Hawaii, USA, December 1994. View at Scopus
  147. D. B. Tuckerman and R. F. W. Pease, “High-performance heat sinking for VLSI,” Electron Device Letters, vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 126–129, 1981. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus