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International Journal of Photoenergy
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 978184, 7 pages
Research Article

Growth of Anodic Aluminum Oxide Templates and the Application in Fabrication of the BiSbTe-Based Thermoelectric Nanowires

1Department of Industrial Education, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 106, Taiwan
2Department of Electronic Engineering, Southern Taiwan University, Tainan 710, Taiwan
3Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National University of Kaohsiung, Kaohsiung 811, Taiwan
4Taipei Municipal Nangang Vocational High School, Taipei 115, Taiwan

Received 13 January 2014; Revised 13 March 2014; Accepted 13 March 2014; Published 9 April 2014

Academic Editor: Ho Chang

Copyright © 2014 Chin-Guo Kuo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


A two-step electrochemical anodization was used to form the anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) thin films with nanotube arrays of self-organized honeycomb structure. Al foil was anodized in 10% sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and 3% oxalic acid (H2C2O4) at 25°C at constant voltage of 40 V for 60 min for two times. Ethylene glycol (C2H6O2) was used as a solution and 0.3 M potassium iodide (KI) was used to improve the solution’s conductivity. Different electrolyte concentrations of Bi(NO3)3-5H2O, SbCl3, and TeCl4 were added into KI-C2H6O2 solution and the cyclic voltammetry experiment was used to find the reduced voltages of Bi3+, Sb3+, and Te4+ ions. The potentiostatic deposition and pulse electrodeposition (PED) processes were used to deposit the (Bi,Sb)2−xTe3+x-based materials. Field-emission scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive spectrometers were used to analyze the compositions of the deposited (Bi,Sb)2−xTe3+x-based materials. After finding the optimal deposition parameter of the PED process the AAO nanotube arrays were used as the templates to deposit the (Bi,Sb)2−xTe3+x-based thermoelectric nanowires.