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International Journal of Photoenergy
Volume 2015, Article ID 404915, 6 pages
Research Article

Water Soluble Aluminum Paste Using Polyvinyl Alcohol for Silicon Solar Cells

1Department of Electric Engineering and Computer Sciences, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Hyogo, Shosha 2167, Himeji, Hyogo 671-2280, Japan
2JAPAN VAM & POVAL Co. Ltd., Chikukou Shinmachi 3-11-1, Nishiku, Sakai, Osaka 592-8331, Japan
3Shin-Etsu Chemical Co. Ltd., Ohtemachi 2-6-1, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-0004, Japan
4Daiwa Sangyo Co. Ltd., 3-4-11 Nakayasui, Sakai, Osaka 590-0063, Japan

Received 12 November 2014; Revised 16 January 2015; Accepted 19 January 2015

Academic Editor: Vincenzo Augugliaro

Copyright © 2015 Abdullah Uzum et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Screen-printing aluminum is still dominantly used in the solar cell fabrication process. Ethyl cellulose is one of the main contents of screen-printing pastes that require dichloromethane for its cleaning process, a substance renowned for being extremely toxic and threatening to the human body. Developing environmental friendly aluminum pastes is essential in order to provide an alternative to the commercial pastes. In this work, new, nontoxic polyvinyl alcohol-based aluminum pastes are introduced. Polyvinyl alcohol was used as a soluble polymer that can be synthesized without saponification and that is also soluble in water. Three different pastes were developed using different recipes including many aluminum particle sizes varying from 3.0 to 45 μm, aluminum oxide with particle sizes between 35 and 50 μm, and acetic acid. Evaluation of the pastes was carried out by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) image analysis, sheet resistance measurements, and fabricating silicon solar cells using each paste. Solar cells with 15.6% efficiency were fabricated by nonvacuum processing on CZ-Si p-type wafers using developed aluminum pastes on the back side.