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International Journal of Photoenergy
Volume 2016, Article ID 2782607, 10 pages
Research Article

Enhanced Photocatalytic Degradation and Mineralization of Furfural Using UVC/TiO2/GAC Composite in Aqueous Solution

1Abadan Faculty of Petroleum Engineering, Petroleum University of Technology, Abadan, Iran
2Environmental Technologies Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran
3Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Health, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran

Received 16 August 2016; Revised 2 November 2016; Accepted 6 December 2016

Academic Editor: Alberto Alvarez

Copyright © 2016 Bahram Ghasemi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Titanium dioxide nanoparticles were immobilized on granular activated carbon (GAC) as a porous and low-density support for photocatalytic degradation of furfural. The TiO2/GAC composite was synthetized using the simple sol-gel method and fully characterized. The effects of the operational parameters of furfural concentration (200–700 mg/L), initial pH (2–12), TiO2/GAC composite dosage (1–3.5 g/L), and irradiation time (20–120 min) were studied. The synthetized TiO2/GAC composite exhibited a total pore volume of 0.13 cm3/g and specific surface area of 35.91 m2/g. Removal efficiency of up to 95% was observed at initial pH of 10, TiO2/GAC dosage of 2.5 g/L, irradiation time of 80 min, and initial furfural concentration of 500 mg/L. The photocatalyst could be reused at least four consecutive times with a mere 2% decrease in furfural removal efficiency. Mineralization efficiency of 94% was obtained within 80 min. Pseudo-first-order kinetics best fit the photocatalytic degradation of furfural under experimental conditions.