Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Photoenergy
Volume 2017, Article ID 1356851, 13 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/1356851
Review Article

Monitoring, Diagnosis, and Power Forecasting for Photovoltaic Fields: A Review

1Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology (DIETI), University of Naples Federico II, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Naples, Italy
2Department of Génie Electrique, Faculty of Technologies, University of M’Sila, BP 166, Ichbelia, M’Sila, Algeria
3Department of Engineering and Architecture, University of Trieste, Piazzale Europa 1, 34127 Trieste, Italy
4Renewable Energy Laboratory, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, Jijel University, Jijel, Algeria
5School of Electronic, Electrical and Systems Engineering, University of Birmingham, Gisbert Kapp Building, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK

Correspondence should be addressed to P. Guerriero; ti.aninu@oreirreug.igiulreip

Received 2 September 2016; Accepted 14 December 2016; Published 11 January 2017

Academic Editor: Wilfried G. J. H. M. Van Sark

Copyright © 2017 S. Daliento et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. S. E. Forman, “Performance of experimental terrestrial photovoltaic modules,” IEEE Transactions on Reliability, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 235–245, 1982. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. C. Baltus, J. Eikelboom, and R. Van Zolingen, “Analytical monitoring of losses in pv systems,” in Proceedings of the 14th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Barcelona, Spain, July 1997.
  3. D. L. King, W. E. Boyson, and J. A. Kratochvil, “Analysis of factors influencing the annual energy production of photovoltaic systems,” in Proceedings of the 29th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, New Orleans, La, USA, May 2002. View at Scopus
  4. G. Petrone, G. Spagnuolo, R. Teodorescu, M. Veerachary, and M. Vitelli, “Reliability issues in photovoltaic power processing systems,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 55, no. 7, pp. 2569–2580, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. A. Chouder and S. Silvestre, “Analysis model of mismatch power losses in pv systems,” Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, Transactions of the ASME, vol. 131, no. 2, Article ID 024504, 5 pages, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. M. A. Quintana, D. L. King, T. J. McMahon, and C. R. Osterwald, “Commonly observed degradation in field-aged photovoltaic modules,” in Proceedings of the 29th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, pp. 1436–1439, May 2002. View at Scopus
  7. P. Guerriero, F. Di Napoli, V. D'Alessandro, and S. Daliento, “Accurate maximum power tracking in photovoltaic systems affected by partial shading,” International Journal of Photoenergy, vol. 2015, Article ID 824832, 10 pages, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. G. Cipriani, V. Di Dio, L. P. Di Noia et al., “A PV plant simulator for testing MPPT techniques,” in Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Clean Electrical Power: Renewable Energy Resources Impact (ICCEP '13), pp. 483–489, Alghero, Italy, June 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. G. Brando, A. Dannier, and R. Rizzo, “A sensorless control of H-bridge multilevel converter for maximum power point tracking in grid connected photovoltaic systems,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Clean Electrical Power (ICCEP '07), May 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. M. A. Munoz, M. C. Alonso-García, N. Vela, and F. Chenlo, “Early degradation of silicon PV modules and guaranty conditions,” Solar Energy, vol. 85, no. 9, pp. 2264–2274, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. S. Daliento and L. Lancellotti, “3D analysis of the performances degradation caused by series resistance in concentrator solar cells,” Solar Energy, vol. 84, no. 1, pp. 44–50, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. P. Guerriero, V. D'Alessandro, L. Petrazzuoli, G. Vallone, and S. Daliento, “Effective real-time performance monitoring and diagnostics of individual panels in PV plants,” in Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Clean Electrical Power: Renewable Energy Resources Impact (ICCEP '13), pp. 14–19, Alghero, Italy, June 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. D. Stellbogen, “Use of PV circuit simulation for fault detection in PV array fields,” in Proceedings of the 23rd IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, pp. 1302–1307, May 1993. View at Scopus
  14. H. Haeberlin and C. Beutler, “Normalized representation of energy and power for analysis of performance and on-line error detection in PV-systems,” in Proceedings of the 13th EU PV Conference on Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conversion, Nice, France, 1995.
  15. A. Drews, A. C. de Keizer, H. G. Beyer et al., “Monitoring and remote failure detection of grid-connected PV systems based on satellite observations,” Solar Energy, vol. 81, no. 4, pp. 548–564, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. S. Silvestre, M. A. D. Silva, A. Chouder, D. Guasch, and E. Karatepe, “New procedure for fault detection in grid connected PV systems based on the evaluation of current and voltage indicators,” Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 86, pp. 241–249, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. G. T. Klise and J. S. Stein, “Mode used to assess the performance of photovoltaic systems,” Tech. Rep., Sandia National Laboratories, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  18. A. Chouder and S. Silvestre, “Automatic supervision and fault detection of PV systems based on power losses analysis,” Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 51, no. 10, pp. 1929–1937, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. U. Muntwyler, E. Schüpbach, and M. Lanz, “Infrared (IR) drone for quick and cheap PV inspection,” in Proceedings of the 31st European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, 5CO.15.6, pp. 1804–1806, September 2015.
  20. P. B. Quater, F. Grimaccia, S. Leva, M. Mussetta, and M. Aghaei, “Light Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) for cooperative inspection of PV plants,” IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 1107–1113, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. S. Leva, M. Aghaei, and F. Grimaccia, “PV power plant inspection by UAS: correlation between altitude and detection of defects on PV modules,” in Proceedings of the 15th IEEE International Conference on Environment and Electrical Engineering (EEEIC '15), pp. 1921–1926, IEEE, Rome, Italy, June 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. J. A. Tsanakas, D. Chrysostomou, P. N. Botsaris, and A. Gasteratos, “Fault diagnosis of photovoltaic modules through image processing and Canny edge detection on field thermographic measurements,” International Journal of Sustainable Energy, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 351–372, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. M. Aghaei, F. Grimaccia, C. A. Gonano, and S. Leva, “Innovative automated control system for PV fields inspection and remote control,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 62, no. 11, pp. 7287–7296, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. M. Aghaei, A. Gandelli, F. Grimaccia, S. Leva, and R. E. Zich, “IR real-time analyses for PV system monitoring by digital image processing techniques,” in Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Event-Based Control, Communication and Signal Processing (EBCCSP '15), pp. 1–6, Krakow, Poland, June 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. S. Dotenco, M. Dalsass, L. Winkler et al., “Automatic detection and analysis of photovoltaic modules in aerial infrared imagery,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Winter Conference on Applications of Computer Vision (WACV '16), pp. 1–9, New York, NY, USA, March 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  26. IEC 61724, https://webstore.iec.ch/preview/info_iec61724%7Bed1.0%7Den.pdf.
  27. F. Bizzarri, A. Brambilla, L. Caretta, and C. Guardiani, “Monitoring performance and efficiency of photovoltaic parks,” Renewable Energy, vol. 78, pp. 314–321, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. R. Platon, J. Martel, N. Woodruff, and T. Y. Chau, “Online fault detection in PV systems,” IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 1200–1207, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  29. A. Tahri, T. Oozeki, and A. Draou, “Monitoring and evaluation of photovoltaic system,” Energy Procedia, vol. 42, pp. 456–464, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  30. R. Hariharan, M. Chakkarapani, G. Saravana Ilango, and C. Nagamani, “A method to detect photovoltaic array faults and partial shading in PV systems,” IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 1278–1285, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  31. F. Shariff, N. A. Rahim, and W. P. Hew, “Zigbee-based data acquisition system for online monitoring of grid-connected photovoltaic system,” Expert Systems with Applications, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 1730–1742, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. M. Gagliarducci, D. A. Lampasi, and L. Podestà, “GSM-based monitoring and control of photovoltaic power generation,” Measurement, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 314–321, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. F. Touati, M. A. Al-Hitmi, N. A. Chowdhury, J. A. Hamad, and A. J. R. San Pedro Gonzales, “Investigation of solar PV performance under Doha weather using a customized measurement and monitoring system,” Renewable Energy, vol. 89, pp. 564–577, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. M. Baba, T. Shimakage, and N. Takeuchi, “Examination of fault detection technique in PV systems,” in Proceedings of the 35th International Telecommunications Energy Conference ‘Smart Power and Efficiency’ (INTELEC '13), pp. 431–434, Hamburg, Germany, 2013.
  35. L. Cristaldi, M. Faifer, G. Leone, and S. Vergura, “Reference strings for statistical monitoring of the energy performance of photovoltaic fields,” in Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Clean Electrical Power (ICCEP '15), pp. 591–596, Taormina, Italy, June 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. P. Guerriero, G. Vallone, M. Primato et al., “A wireless sensor network for the monitoring of large PV plants,” in Proceedings of the 2014 International Symposium on Power Electronics, Electrical Drives, Automation and Motion (SPEEDAM '14), pp. 960–965, Sorrento, Italy, June 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. P. Guerriero, F. Di Napoli, and S. Daliento, “Real time monitoring of solar fields with cost/revenue analysis of fault fixing,” in Proceedings of the IEEE 16th International Conference on Environment and Electrical Engineering (EEEIC '16), Florence, Italy, June 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  38. S. Ben-Menahem and S. C. Yang, “Online photovoltaic array hot-spot Bayesian diagnostics from streaming string-level electric data,” in Proceedings of the 38th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC '12), pp. 2432–2437, June 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. M. Davarifar, A. Rabhi, A. Hajjaji, E. Kamal, and Z. Daneshifar, “Partial shading fault diagnosis in PV system with discrete wavelet transform (DWT),” in Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Renewable Energy Research and Applications (ICRERA '14), pp. 810–814, Milwaukee, Wis, USA, October 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. S. Spataru, D. Sera, T. Kerekes, and R. Teodorescu, “Diagnostic method for photovoltaic systems based on light I–V measurements,” Solar Energy, vol. 119, pp. 29–44, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. W. Chine, A. Mellit, A. M. Pavan, and V. Lughi, “Fault diagnosis in photovoltaic arrays,” in Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Clean Electrical Power (ICCEP '15), pp. 67–72, Taormina, Italy, June 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. Y. Zhao, F. Balboni, T. Arnaud, J. Mosesian, R. Ball, and B. Lehman, “Fault experiments in a commercial-scale PV laboratory and fault detection using local outlier factor,” in Proceedings of the 40th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialist Conference (PVSC '14), pp. 3398–3403, Denver, Colo, USA, June 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. T. Hu, M. Zheng, J. Tan, L. Zhu, and W. Miao, “Intelligent photovoltaic monitoring based on solar irradiance big data and wireless sensor networks,” Ad Hoc Networks, vol. 35, pp. 127–136, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  44. P. Papageorgas, D. Piromalisb, T. Valavanis, S. Kambasis, T. Iliopoulou, and G. Vokas, “A low-cost and fast PV I-V curve tracer based on an open source platform with M2M communication capabilities for preventive monitoring,” Energy Procedia, vol. 74, pp. 423–438, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  45. M. Coppola, P. Guerriero, F. Di Napoli, S. Daliento, D. Lauria, and A. Del Pizzo, “A PV AC-module based on coupled-inductors boost DC/AC converter,” in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Power Electronics, Electrical Drives, Automation and Motion (SPEEDAM '14), pp. 1015–1020, June 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. M. Coppola, P. Guerriero, F. Di Napoli et al., “Modulation technique for grid-tied PV multilevel inverter,” in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Power Electronics, Electrical Drives, Automation and Motion (SPEEDAM '16), pp. 923–928, 2016.
  47. P. Guerriero, M. Coppola, F. Di Napoli et al., “Three-phase PV CHB inverter for a distributed power generation system,” Applied Sciences, vol. 6, no. 10, article 287, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  48. M. Coppola, F. D. Napoli, P. Guerriero et al., “Maximum power point tracking algorithm for gridtied photovoltaic cascaded hbridge inverter,” Electric Power Components and Systems, vol. 43, no. 8–10, pp. 951–963, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. M. Coppola, S. Daliento, P. Guerriero, D. Lauria, and E. Napoli, “On the design and the control of a coupled-inductors boost dc-ac converter for an individual PV panel,” in Proceedings of the 21st International Symposium on Power Electronics, Electrical Drives, Automation and Motion (SPEEDAM '12), pp. 1154–1159, Sorrento, Italy, June 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. B. Ando, S. Baglio, A. Pistorio, G. M. Tina, and C. Ventura, “Sentinella: smart monitoring of photovoltaic systems at panel level,” IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, vol. 64, no. 8, pp. 2188–2199, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. F. Shariff, N. A. Rahim, and H. W. Ping, “Photovoltaic remote monitoring system based on GSM,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Clean Energy and Technology (CEAT '13), pp. 379–383, November 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. F. J. Sánchez-Pacheco, P. J. Sotorrío-Ruiz, J. R. Heredia-Larrubia, F. Pérez-Hidalgo, and M. S. De Cardona, “PLC-based PV plants smart monitoring system: field measurements and uncertainty estimation,” IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, vol. 63, no. 9, pp. 2215–2222, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. F. Di Napoli, P. Guerriero, V. D'Alessandro, and S. Daliento, “A power line communication on DC bus with photovoltaic strings,” in Proceedings of the 3rd Renewable Power Generation Conference (RPG '14), IET, Naples, Italy, September 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. J. Han, I. Lee, and K. Sang-Ha, “User friendly Monitoring System for residential PV System Based on Low cost Power Line Communication,” IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, vol. 61, no. 2, pp. 175–180, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  55. F. Di Napoli, P. Guerriero, V. d'Alessandro, and S. Daliento, “Single-panel voltage zeroing system for safe access on PV plants,” IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 1428–1434, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. P. Guerriero, F. Di Napoli, G. Vallone, V. D'Alessandro, and S. Daliento, “Monitoring and diagnostics of PV plants by a wireless self-powered sensor for individual panels,” IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 286–294, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. V. D'Alessandro, P. Guerriero, S. Daliento, and M. Gargiulo, “Accurately extracting the shunt resistance of photovoltaic cells in installed module strings,” in Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Clean Electrical Power: Renewable Energy Resources Impact (ICCEP '11), pp. 164–168, June 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. P. Guerriero, V. D'Alessandro, L. Petrazzuoli, G. Vallone, and S. Daliento, “Effective real-time performance monitoring and diagnostics of individual panels in PV plants,” in Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Clean Electrical Power: Renewable Energy Resources Impact (ICCEP '13), pp. 14–19, June 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. M. Gargiulo, P. Guerriero, S. Daliento et al., “A novel wireless self-powered microcontroller-based monitoring circuit for photovoltaic panels in grid-connected systems,” in Proceedings of the 2010 International Symposium on Power Electronics, Electrical Drives, Automation and Motion (SPEEDAM '10), pp. 164–168, Pisa, Italy, June 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. H. Braun, S. T. Buddha, V. Krishnan et al., “Signal processing for fault detection in photovoltaic arrays,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (ICASSP '12), pp. 1681–1684, March 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. C. R. Griesbach, “Fault-tolerant solar array control using digital signal processing for peak power tracking,” in Proceedings of the 31st Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC '96), pp. 260–265, Washington, DC, USA, August 1996. View at Scopus
  62. H. Braun, S. T. Buddha, V. Krishnan et al., “Signal processing for solar array monitoring, fault detection, and optimization,” Synthesis Lectures on Power Electronics, 95 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. Y. Zhao, L. Yang, B. Lehman, J.-F. De Palma, J. Mosesian, and R. Lyons, “Decision tree-based fault detection and classification in solar photovoltaic arrays,” in Proceedings of the 27th Annual IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition (APEC '12), pp. 93–99, Orlando, Fla, USA, February 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. W. Chine, A. Mellit, V. Lughi, A. Malek, G. Sulligoi, and A. Massi Pavan, “A novel fault diagnosis technique for photovoltaic systems based on artificial neural networks,” Renewable Energy, vol. 90, pp. 501–512, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. A. Al-Amoudi and L. Zhang, “Application of radial basis function networks for solar-array modelling and maximum power-point prediction,” IEE Proceedings: Generation, Transmission and Distribution, vol. 147, no. 5, pp. 310–316, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. I.-S. Kim, “On-line fault detection algorithm of a photovoltaic system using wavelet transform,” Solar Energy, vol. 126, pp. 137–145, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  67. J. A. Momoh and R. Button, “Design and analysis of aerospace DC arcing faults using fast fourier transformation and artificial neural network,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Power Engineering Society General Meeting, pp. 788–793, Ontario, Canada, July 2003. View at Scopus
  68. D. D. Nguyen, B. Lehman, and S. Kamarthi, “Performance evaluation of solar photovoltaic arrays including shadow effects using neural network,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition (ECCE '09), pp. 3357–3362, September 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. D. Riley and J. Johnson, “Photovoltaic prognostics and heath management using learning algorithms,” in Proceedings of the 38th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC '12), pp. 1535–1539, Austin, Tex, USA, June 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. Syafaruddin, E. Karatepe, and T. Hiyama, “Controlling of artificial neural network for fault diagnosis of photovoltaic array,” in Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Intelligent System Applications to Power Systems (ISAP '11), pp. 1–6, IEEE, September 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. A. Massi Pavan, A. Mellit, D. De Pieri, and S. A. Kalogirou, “A comparison between BNN and regression polynomial methods for the evaluation of the effect of soiling in large scale photovoltaic plants,” Applied Energy, vol. 108, pp. 392–401, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. A. Mellit, A. Massi Pavan, and V. Lughi, “Short-term forecasting of power production in a large-scale photovoltaic plant,” Solar Energy, vol. 105, pp. 401–413, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. J. Antonanzas, N. Osorio, R. Escobar, R. Urraca, F. Martinez-de-Pison, and F. Antonanzas-Torres, “Review of photovoltaic power forecasting,” Solar Energy, vol. 136, pp. 78–111, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  74. V. d'Alessandro, F. Di Napoli, P. Guerriero, and S. Daliento, “An automated high-granularity tool for a fast evaluation of the yield of PV plants accounting for shading effects,” Renewable Energy, vol. 83, pp. 294–304, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. E. Lorenz, T. Scheidsteger, J. Hurka, D. Heinemann, and C. Kurz, “Regional PV power prediction for improved grid integration,” Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications, vol. 19, no. 7, pp. 757–771, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. J. G. Da Silva Fonseca, T. Oozeki, H. Ohtake, T. Takashima, and K. Ogimoto, “Regional forecasts of photovoltaic power generation according to different data availability scenarios: a study of four methods,” Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications, vol. 23, no. 10, pp. 1203–1218, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. M. Q. Raza, M. Nadarajah, and C. Ekanayake, “On recent advances in PV output power forecast,” Solar Energy, vol. 136, pp. 125–144, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  78. M. Bouzerdoum, A. Mellit, and A. M. Pavan, “A hybrid model (SARIMA-SVM) for short-term power forecasting of a small-scale grid-connected photovoltaic plant,” Solar Energy, vol. 98, pp. 226–235, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. P. Ramsami and V. Oree, “A hybrid method for forecasting the energy output of photovoltaic systems,” Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 95, pp. 406–413, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. D. P. Larson, L. Nonnenmacher, and C. F. M. Coimbra, “Day-ahead forecasting of solar power output from photovoltaic plants in the American Southwest,” Renewable Energy, vol. 91, pp. 11–20, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. M. Ding, L. Wang, and R. Bi, “An ANN-based approach for forecasting the power output of photovoltaic system,” Procedia Environmental Sciences C, vol. 11, pp. 1308–1315, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  82. S. Pelland, J. Remund, J. Kleissl, T. Oozeki, and K. De Brabandere, “Photovoltaic and solar forecasting: state of the art,” IEA PVPS Task, vol. 14, pp. 1–36, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  83. S. Pelland, G. Galanis, and G. Kallos, “Solar and photovoltaic forecasting through post-processing of the Global Environmental Multiscale numerical weather prediction model,” Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 284–296, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. J. Zhang, B.-M. Hodge, J. Simmons et al., “Baseline and target values for PV forecasts: toward improved solar power forecasting,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting (PESGM '15), Denver, Colo, USA, July 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. P. Lauret, E. Lorenz, and M. David, “Solar forecasting in a challenging insular context,” Atmosphere, vol. 7, no. 2, p. 18, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  86. E. Lorenz, J. Kühnert, B. Wolff, A. Hammer, O. Kramer, and D. Heinemann, “PV power predictions on different spatial and temporal scales integrating PV measurements, satellite data and numerical weather predictions,” in Proceedings of the 29th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition (EUPVSEC '14), pp. 22–26, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, September 2014.
  87. P. Alan, Forecasting with Dynamic Regression Models, John Wiley & Sons, 1991.
  88. G. E. Box, G. M. Jenkins, G. C. Reinsel, and G. M. Ljung, Time Series Analysis: Forecasting and Control, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA, 2015.
  89. Y. Li, Y. Su, and L. Shu, “An ARMAX model for forecasting the power output of a grid connected photovoltaic system,” Renewable Energy, vol. 66, pp. 78–89, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. A. Mellit and S. A. Kalogirou, “Artificial intelligence techniques for photovoltaic applications: a review,” Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 574–632, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. L. A. Fernandez-Jimenez, A. Muñoz-Jimenez, A. Falces et al., “Short-term power forecasting system for photovoltaic plants,” Renewable Energy, vol. 44, pp. 311–317, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. A. Mellit and A. M. Pavan, “A 24-h forecast of solar irradiance using artificial neural network: application for performance prediction of a grid-connected PV plant at Trieste, Italy,” Solar Energy, vol. 84, no. 5, pp. 807–821, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. F. Almonacid, C. Rus, L. Hontoria, and F. J. Muñoz, “Characterisation of PV CIS module by artificial neural networks. A comparative study with other methods,” Renewable Energy, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 973–980, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. E. Izgi, A. Öztopal, B. Yerli, M. K. Kaymak, and A. D. Şahin, “Short-mid-term solar power prediction by using artificial neural networks,” Solar Energy, vol. 86, no. 2, pp. 725–733, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. P. Mandal, S. T. S. Madhira, J. Meng, and R. L. Pineda, “Forecasting power output of solar photovoltaic system using wavelet transform and artificial intelligence techniques,” Procedia Computer Science, vol. 12, pp. 332–337, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  96. A. Mellit and S. Shaari, “Recurrent neural network-based forecasting of the daily electricity generation of a Photovoltaic power system,” in Proceedings of the Ecological Vehicle and Renewable Energy (EVER '09), pp. 26–29, Monte-Carlo, Monaco, March 2009.
  97. T. T. Teo, T. Logenthiran, and W. L. Woo, “Forecasting of photovoltaic power using extreme learning machine,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Innovative Smart Grid Technologies—Asia (ISGT ASIA '15), November 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  98. C. Chen, S. Duan, T. Cai, and B. Liu, “Online 24-h solar power forecasting based on weather type classification using artificial neural network,” Solar Energy, vol. 85, no. 11, pp. 2856–2870, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. S. Daliento, L. Mele, E. Bobeico, L. Lancellotti, and P. Morvillo, “Analytical modelling and minority current measurements for the determination of the emitter surface recombination velocity in silicon solar cells,” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 91, no. 8, pp. 707–713, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. S. Daliento and L. Mele, “Approximate closed-form analytical solution for minority carrier transport in opaque heavily doped regions under illuminated conditions,” IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, vol. 53, no. 11, pp. 2837–2839, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. H. Denio III, “Aerial solar Thermography and condition monitoring of photovoltaic systems,” in Proceedings of the 38th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC '12), pp. 613–618, Austin, Tex, USA, June 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. P. Guerriero, F. Di Napoli, M. Coppola, and S. Daliento, “A new bypass circuit for hot spot mitigation,” in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Power Electronics, Electrical Drives, Automation and Motion (SPEEDAM '16), pp. 1067–1072, June 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  103. N. Tyutyundzhiev, F. Martinez-Moreno, J. Leloux, and L. Narvarte, “Equipment and procedures for on-site testing of PV plants and BIPV,” in Proceedings of the 29th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition (PVSEC '14), pp. 3499–3503, 2014.
  104. J. A. Tsanakas, G. Vannier, A. Plissonnier, D. L. Ha, and F. Barruel, “Fault diagnosis and classification of large-scale photovoltaic plants through aerial orthophoto thermal mapping,” in Proceedings of the 31st European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition 2015, pp. 1783–1788, Hamburg, Germany, August 2016.
  105. J. R. Martinez-De Dios and A. Ollero, “Automatic detection of windows thermal heat losses in buildings using UAVS,” in Proceedings of the World Automation Congress (WAC '06), Budapest, Hungary, June 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  106. F. Grimaccia, M. Aghaei, M. Mussetta, S. Leva, and P. B. Quater, “Planning for PV plant performance monitoring by means of unmanned aerial systems (UAS),” International Journal of Energy and Environmental Engineering, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 47–54, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  107. G. Leotta, P. M. Pugliatti, A. D. Stefano, F. Aleo, and F. Bizzarri, “Post processing technique for thermo-graphic images provided by drone inspections,” in Proceedings of the 31st European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition (EU PVSEC '15), pp. 1799–1803, Hamburg, Germany, 2015.
  108. S. Vergura, F. Marino, and M. Carpentieri, “Processing infrared image of PV modules for defects classification,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Renewable Energy Research and Applications (ICRERA '15), pp. 1337–1341, IEEE, Palermo, Italy, November 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  109. P. Guerriero, G. Cuozzo, and S. Daliento, “Health diagnostics of PV panels by means of single cell analysis of thermographic images,” in Proceedings of the IEEE 16th International Conference on Environment and Electrical Engineering (EEEIC '16), Florence, Italy, June 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  110. N. I. Tziavos, H. Hemida, N. Metje, and C. Baniotopoulos, “Grouted connections on offshore wind turbines: a review,” Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers—Engineering and Computational Mechanics, vol. 169, no. 4, pp. 183–195, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  111. L. Piegari and R. Rizzo, “A control technique for doubly fed induction generators to solve flicker problems in wind power generation,” in Proceedings of the 1st International Power and Energy Conference (PECon '06), pp. 19–23, November 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  112. G. Brando, A. Danmer, A. Del Pizzo, and R. Rizzo, “A generalized modulation technique for multilevel converters,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Power Engineering, Energy and Electrical Drives (POWERENG '07), April 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  113. B. Ji, V. Pickert, B. Zahawi, and M. Zhang, “In-situ bond wire health monitoring circuit for IGBT power modules,” in Proceedings of the 6th IET International Conference on Power Electronics, Machines and Drives (PEMD '12), pp. 1–6, March 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  114. V. N. Popok, K. B. Pedersen, P. K. Kristensen, and K. Pedersen, “Comprehensive physical analysis of bond wire interfaces in power modules,” Microelectronics Reliability, vol. 58, pp. 58–64, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  115. A. Morozumi, K. Yamada, T. Miyasaka, S. Sumi, and Y. Seki, “Reliability of power cycling for IGBT power semiconductor modules,” IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 665–671, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  116. R. Bayerer, T. Herrmann, T. Licht, J. Lutz, and M. Feller, “Model for power cycling lifetime of IGBT modules-various factors influencing lifetime,” in Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Integrated Power Systems (CIPS '08), pp. 1–6, VDE, Nuremberg, Germany, March 2008.
  117. M. Denk and M.-M. Bakran, “Comparison of counting algorithms and empiric lifetime models to analyze the load-profile of an IGBT power module in a hybrid car,” in Proceedings of the 3rd International Electric Drives Production Conference (EDPC '13), pp. 1–6, IEEE, October 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  118. D. Barlini, M. Ciappa, M. Mermet-Guyennet, and W. Fichtner, “Measurement of the transient junction temperature in MOSFET devices under operating conditions,” Microelectronics Reliability, vol. 47, no. 9-11, pp. 1707–1712, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  119. R. Moeini, P. Tricoli, and H. Hemida, “Increasing the reliability of wind turbines using condition monitoring of semiconductor devices: a review,” in Renewable Power Generation, IET, 2016. View at Google Scholar
  120. R. Schmidt and U. Scheuermann, “Using the chip as a temperature sensor—the influence of steep lateral temperature gradients on the Vce(T)-measurement,” in Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications (EPE '09), pp. 5–11, Barcelona, Spain, September 2009. View at Scopus
  121. W. Brekel, T. Duetemeyer, G. Puk, and O. Schilling, “Time resolved in situ Tvj measurements of 6.5 kV IGBTs during inverter operation,” in Proceedings of the PCIM Europe Conference, pp. 808–813, Nuremberg, Germany, May 2009.
  122. H. Kuhn and A. Mertens, “On-line junction temperature measurement of IGBTs based on temperature sensitive electrical parameters,” in Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications (EPE '09), 10, p. 1, September 2009. View at Scopus
  123. D. W. Brown, M. Abbas, A. Ginart, I. N. Ali, P. W. Kalgren, and G. J. Vachtsevanos, “Turn-off time as an early indicator of insulated gate bipolar transistor latch-up,” IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 479–489, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  124. M. Denk and M.-M. Bakran, “An IGBT driver concept with integrated real-time junction temperature measurement,” in Proceedings of the International Exhibition and Conference for Power Electronics, Intelligent Motion, Renewable Energy and Energy Management (PCIM '14), pp. 214–221, May 2014. View at Scopus
  125. N. Baker, S. Munk-Nielsen, M. Liserre, and F. Iannuzzo, “Online junction temperature measurement via internal gate resistance during turn-on,” in Proceedings of the IEEE 16th European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications (EPE '14-ECCE Europe), pp. 1–10, August 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  126. S. Bęczkowski, P. Ghimre, A. R. Vega, S. Munk-Nielsen, and P. Th, “Online Vce measurement method for wear-out monitoring of high power IGBT modules,” in Proceedings of the 15th European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications (EPE '13), pp. 1–7, IEEE, Lille, France, 2013.
  127. C. Zorn and N. Kaminski, “Acceleration of temperature humidity bias (THB) testing on IGBT modules by high bias levels,” in Proceedings of the 27th IEEE International Symposium on Power Semiconductor Devices and IC's (ISPSD '15), pp. 385–388, May 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  128. N. Flourentzou, V. G. Agelidis, and G. D. Demetriades, “VSC-based HVDC power transmission systems: an overview,” IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 592–602, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  129. C. Zorn and N. Kaminski, “Temperature humidity bias (THB) testing on IGBT modules at high bias levels,” in Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Integrated Power Systems (CIPS '14), pp. 1–7, 2014.