Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Photoenergy
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 2562968, 9 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/2562968
Research Article

A PCBM-Modified TiO2 Blocking Layer towards Efficient Perovskite Solar Cells

1Huanghe Hydropower Solar Industry Technology Co. Ltd., 369 South Yanta Road, Xi’an 710061, China
2Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Technology Disciplines State Key Laboratory, School of Microelectronics, Xidian University, Xi’an 710071, China

Correspondence should be addressed to Chunfu Zhang; nc.ude.naidix@gnahzfc

Received 17 June 2017; Revised 2 October 2017; Accepted 12 October 2017; Published 7 December 2017

Academic Editor: Giulia Grancini

Copyright © 2017 Gang Lu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. C. C. Chen, W. H. Chang, K. Yoshimura et al., “An efficient triple-junction polymer solar cell having a power conversion efficiency exceeding 11%,” Advanced Materials, vol. 26, no. 32, pp. 5670–5677, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. L. P. Heiniger, F. Giordano, T. Moehl, and M. Grätzel, “Mesoporous TiO2 beads offer improved mass transport for cobalt-based redox couples leading to high efficiency dye sensitized solar cells,” Advanced Energy Materials, vol. 4, no. 12, article 1400168, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. Y. He, Y. Lei, X. Yang et al., “Using elemental Pb surface as a precursor to fabricate large area CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells,” Applied Surface Science, vol. 389, pp. 540–546, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. Y.-Y. Lee, W.-J. Ho, and C.-W. Yeh, “Fabrication of silicon solar cell with >18% efficiency using spin-on-film processing for phosphorus diffusion and SiO2/graded index TiO2 anti-reflective coating,” Applied Surface Science, vol. 354, pp. 20–24, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. D. Chen, C. Zhang, T. Heng et al., “Efficient inverted polymer solar cells using low-temperature zinc oxide interlayer processed from aqueous solution,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 54, no. 4, article 042301, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. Z. Wang, C. Zhang, R. Gao et al., “Improvement of transparent silver thin film anodes for organic solar cells with a decreased percolation threshold of silver,” Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells, vol. 127, pp. 193–200, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. Z. Xiao, Y. Yuan, Y. Shao et al., “Giant switchable photovoltaic effect in organometal trihalide perovskite devices,” Nature Materials, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 193–198, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. D. P. McMeekin, G. Sadoughi, W. Rehman et al., “A mixed-cation lead mixed-halide perovskite absorber for tandem solar cells,” Science, vol. 351, no. 6269, pp. 151–155, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. N. Ahn, D. Y. Son, I. H. Jang, S. M. Kang, M. Choi, and N. G. Park, “Highly reproducible perovskite solar cells with average efficiency of 18.3% and best efficiency of 19.7% fabricated via Lewis base adduct of lead (II) iodide,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 137, no. 27, pp. 8696–8699, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. N. J. Jeon, J. H. Noh, Y. C. Kim, W. S. Yang, S. Ryu, and S. I. Seok, “Solvent engineering for high-performance inorganic–organic hybrid perovskite solar cells,” Nature Materials, vol. 13, no. 9, pp. 897–903, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. W. S. Yang, J. H. Noh, N. J. Jeon et al., “High-performance photovoltaic perovskite layers fabricated through intramolecular exchange,” Science, vol. 348, no. 6240, pp. 1234–1237, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. W. Shockley and H. J. Queisser, “Detailed balance limit of efficiency of p-n junction solar cells,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 510–519, 1961. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. W. Chen, Y. Wu, Y. Yue et al., “Efficient and stable large-area perovskite solar cells with inorganic charge extraction layers,” Science, vol. 350, no. 6263, pp. 944–948, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. K. Hwang, Y. S. Jung, Y. J. Heo et al., “Toward large scale roll-to-roll production of fully printed perovskite solar cells,” Advanced Materials, vol. 27, no. 7, pp. 1241–1247, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. Y. Deng, E. Peng, Y. Shao, Z. Xiao, Q. Dong, and J. Huang, “Scalable fabrication of efficient organolead trihalide perovskite solar cells with doctor-bladed active layers,” Energy & Environmental Science, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 1544–1550, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. G. Xing, N. Mathews, S. Sun et al., “Long-range balanced electron-and hole-transport lengths in organic-inorganic CH3NH3PbI3,” Science, vol. 342, no. 6156, pp. 344–347, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. S. D. Stranks, G. E. Eperon, G. Grancini et al., “Electron-hole diffusion lengths exceeding 1 micrometer in an organometal trihalide perovskite absorber,” Science, vol. 342, no. 6156, pp. 341–344, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. M. Liu, M. B. Johnston, and H. J. Snaith, “Efficient planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells by vapour deposition,” Nature, vol. 501, no. 7467, pp. 395–398, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. Y. Shao, Z. Xiao, C. Bi, Y. Yuan, and J. Huang, “Origin and elimination of photocurrent hysteresis by fullerene passivation in CH3NH3PbI3 planar heterojunction solar cells,” Nature Communications, vol. 5, p. 5784, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. Y. Shao, Y. Yuan, and J. Huang, “Correlation of energy disorder and open-circuit voltage in hybrid perovskite solar cells,” Nature Energy, vol. 1, no. 1, article 15001, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  21. C. Tao, S. Neutzner, L. Colella et al., “17.6% stabilized efficiency in low-temperature processed planar perovskite solar cells, energy,” Environmental Sciences, vol. 8, pp. 2365–2370, 2015. View at Google Scholar
  22. C. Zhang, S. Tang, J. Yan et al., “Efficient planar heterojunction solar cell employing CH3NH3PbI2+xCl1−x mixed halide perovskite utilizing modified sequential deposition,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 54, no. 9, article 092301, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. P. Docampo, J. M. Ball, M. Darwich, G. E. Eperon, and H. J. Snaith, “Efficient organometal trihalide perovskite planar-heterojunction solar cells on flexible polymer substrates,” Nature Communications, vol. 4, p. 2761, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. G. Xing, B. Wu, S. Chen et al., “Interfacial electron transfer barrier at compact TiO2/CH3NH3PbI3 heterojunction,” Small, vol. 11, no. 29, pp. 3606–3613, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. L. Kegelmann, C. M. Wolff, C. A. Omondi et al., “It takes two to tango—double-layer selective contacts in perovskitesolar cells for improved device performance and reduced hysteresis,” ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, vol. 9, no. 20, pp. 17245–17255, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  26. C. Bi, Q. Wang, Y. Shao, Y. Yuan, Z. Xiao, and H. Huang, “Non-wetting surface-driven high-aspect-ratio crystalline grain growth for efficient hybrid perovskite solar cells,” Nature Communications, vol. 6, p. 7747, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. Y. Lei, L. D. Zhang, G. W. Meng et al., “Preparation and photoluminescence of highly ordered TiO2 nanowire arrays,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 78, no. 8, pp. 1125–1127, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  28. X. Wang, Z. Feng, J. Shi et al., “Trap states and carrier dynamics of TiO2 studied by photoluminescence spectroscopy under weak excitation condition,” Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, vol. 12, no. 26, pp. 7083–7090, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus