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International Journal of Photoenergy
Volume 2017, Article ID 7686053, 8 pages
Research Article

Controlled Assembly of Nanorod TiO2 Crystals via a Sintering Process: Photoanode Properties in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

1Mechanical Engineering Department, Bradley University, 1501 West Bradley Avenue, Peoria, IL 61625, USA
2Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Gifu University, Yanagido, Gifu 501-1193, Japan
3Faculty of Engineering, Gifu University, Yanagido, Gifu 501-1193, Japan

Correspondence should be addressed to Kazuhiro Manseki; and Takashi Sugiura;

Received 15 May 2017; Accepted 5 July 2017; Published 22 October 2017

Academic Editor: Ting Xia

Copyright © 2017 Saeid Vafaei et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


We present for the first time a synthetic method of obtaining 1D TiO2 nanorods with sintering methods using bundle-shaped 3D rutile TiO2 particles (3D BR-TiO2) with the dimensions of around 100 nm. The purpose of this research is (i) to control crystallization of the mixture of two kinds of TiO2 semiconductor nanocrystals, that is, 3D BR-TiO2 and spherical anatase TiO2 (SA-TiO2) on FTO substrate via sintering process and (ii) to establish a new method to create photoanodes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). In addition, we focus on the preparation of low-cost and environmentally friendly titania electrode by adopting the “water-based” nanofluids. Our results provide useful guidance on how to improve the photovoltaic performance by reshaping the numerous 3D TiO2 particles to 1D TiO2-based electrodes with sintering technique.