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International Journal of Photoenergy
Volume 2018, Article ID 7605306, 12 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/7605306
Research Article

One-Pot Synthesis of Ru-Doped ZnO Oxides for Photodegradation of 4-Chlorophenol

1ESIQIE, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Av. Instituto Politécnico Nacional s/n, Col. Zacatenco, 07738 Mexico City, Mexico
2Departamento de Ciencias Básicas, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Azcapotzalco, Av. San Pablo 180, Col. Reynosa-Tamaulipas, 02200 Mexico City, Mexico
3Departamento Química, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, San Rafael Atlixco 186, 09340 Mexico City, Mexico
4GDMyPQ, Eje Lázaro Cárdenas 152, Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo, 07730 Mexico City, Mexico
5College of Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Nanyang Normal University, Nanyang, China

Correspondence should be addressed to Luis Enrique Noreña; xm.mau.cza.oerroc@fnl and Jin An Wang; xm.npi@gnawj

Received 17 February 2018; Revised 20 June 2018; Accepted 19 July 2018; Published 29 October 2018

Academic Editor: Ilya I. Tumkin

Copyright © 2018 Maria E. Manríquez et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The photocatalytic degradation of 4-chlorophenol in water using Ru-doped ZnO mixed oxides (0, 0.5, 1, and 3 wt% RuO2) synthesized by the one-pot homogeneous coprecipitation method is reported. ZnO with wurtzite structure was present in the mixed oxide as corroborated by Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. All the samples showed nanorod morphological features. The presence of Ru6+/Ru4+ couples on ZnO modified the band gap of the mixed oxides and led to a shift of the band gap energy from 3.20 eV to 3.07 eV. Ru addition increased the surface area and significantly promoted the formation of active surface oxygen species such as hydroradicals evidenced by the fluorescence spectroscopy measurement. In the photodegradation of 4-chlorophenol solution under UV irradiation, a notable increase in photoactivity was obtained as the amount of RuO2 in the mixed oxides increased to 3 wt%. The charge transfer between Ru6+/Ru4+ couples and ZnO nanoparticles together with the formation of free radical oxidant species effectively inhibits electron-hole recombination rate, thus favoring the photodegradation of 4-chlorophenol.