“I Am Afraid of Positioning my Baby in Prone”: Beliefs and Knowledge about Tummy Time PracticeRead the full article
International Journal of Pediatrics provides a forum for pediatricians who diagnose and treat disorders in infants, children, and adolescents. Studies relate to pediatric subspecialities including adolescent medicine, cardiology, critical care etc.
Chief Editor, Dr Alessandro Mussa, is based in the Department of Public Health and Pediatrics at the University of Torino, Italy.
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Increased Rates of Hospitalized Children with Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Central Brooklyn during the COVID-19 Pandemic
Following reports of increased new-onset diabetes and worse severity of DKA for children with diabetes following SARS-CoV-2 infection, we studied hospitalization rates for children with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in our center during the citywide shutdown. Methods. We conducted a retrospective chart review of children admitted to our two hospitals from January 1, 2018, to December 31, 2020. We included ICD-10 codes for diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome (HHS), and hyperglycemia only. Results. We included 132 patients with 214 hospitalizations: 157 T1DM, 41 T2DM, and 16 others (14 steroid induced, 2 MODY). Overall admissions rates for patients with all types of diabetes were 3.08% in 2018 to 3.54% in 2019 () and 4.73% in 2020 (). Although there was no increase of T1DM admissions across all 3 years, T2DM admission rates increased from 0.29% to 1.47% (). Newly diagnosed T1DM rates increased from 0.34% in 2018 to 1.28% () in 2020, and new-onset T2DM rates also increased from 0.14% in 2018 to 0.9% in 2020 (). Rates of new-onset diabetes presenting with DKA increased from 0.24% in 2018 to 0.96% in 2020 (). HHS increased from 0.1% in 2018 to 0.45% in 2020 (). The severity of DKA in newly diagnosed was unaffected (). Only 3 patients tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection by PCR. Conclusion. Our urban medical center is located in Central Brooklyn and serves a majority who are Black. This is the first study investigating pediatric diabetes cases admitted to Brooklyn during the first wave of the pandemic. Despite the overall pediatric admissions declining in 2020 due to the citywide shutdown, overall hospitalization rates in children with T2DM and in new-onset T1DM and T2DM increased, which is not directly associated with active SARS-CoV-2 infection. More studies are needed to elucidate the reason for this observed increase in hospitalization rates.
Histological Features of IgA Nephropathy in Pediatrics and the Magnitude of the Disease in Saudi Children
Objectives. This review addresses the microscopic features of immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgA nephropathy), its prognostic variables in children, and measures to which extent these features and variables differ from adults. Furthermore, it describes the extent of this disease process among children in Saudi Arabia and the rest of the Arab countries and compares it with the data from the West and the Far East. Method. All the original work described the histological features of pediatric IgA nephropathy, and studies involved in developing the prognostic classification of IgA nephropathy, Oxford Classification, were reviewed. Moreover, the studies describing the crescent prevalence and outcome in pediatric IgA nephropathy in addition to thrombotic microangiopathy association were studied. National studies describing the prevalence of pediatric IgA nephropathy and pediatric crescentic glomerulonephritis were tracked with an overview of the regional data from the rest of the Arab world. Results. IgA nephropathy in children showed more glomerular proliferative changes and less glomerular vascular and tubule-interstitial chronic injury compared to adults. The reference study that described the association between thrombotic microangiopathy and IgA nephropathy did not include the pediatric age group. Moreover, it was found that the data from the Middle East was not encountered in developing the original and updated IgA nephropathy Oxford Classification. Furthermore, the prevalence of IgA nephropathy in children is described in the regional literature, but its histological features were not well detailed. Finally, the percentage of crescentic glomerulonephritis (GN) due to IgA nephropathy is less in our country compared to the West and concords with the Far East findings. Conclusion. A well-designed regional study addressing IgA nephropathy in Middle East children with a focus on histological features, association with crescent, and thrombotic microangiopathy and challenging the validity of the updated IgA nephropathy Oxford Classification is recommended.
Serum Protein Electrophoretic in Children
Serum protein electrophoresis is a simple, reliable, and specific method used for separation of serum proteins. This study consisted to detect, at pediatric cases, pathological profiles of serum proteins by capillary electrophoresis and interpret any anomalies. The study was performed on 81 sera collected from pediatric subjects admitted at the Abderrahim Harouchi Children’s Hospital in Casablanca. Study results revealed 72 specific pathological electrophoretic patterns for acute and chronic inflammatory response (35 children), hypogammaglobulinemia (3), polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia (23), hypoalbuminemia (5), agammaglobulinemia (1), and other medical conditions (2). No cases of alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency and nephrotic syndrome by electrophoresis were highlighted. Serum protein electrophoresis in children is recommended as a diagnostic technique for increasing the accuracy of the diagnosis in acute, subacute, and chronic inflammatory diseases, liver disease, and cases of immunodeficiency.
ICU Admission, Invasive Mechanical Ventilation, and Mortality among Children and Adolescents Hospitalized for COVID-19 in a Private Healthcare System
Aim. The COVID-19 pandemic devastated healthcare around the world. Data about the COVID-19 outcomes among young people are still scarce. We aim to identify factors associated with the composite outcome among children and adolescents hospitalized due to COVID-19. Methods. We performed a search in the database of a large Brazilian private healthcare system. Insured people aged 21 years or younger who were hospitalized due to COVID-19 from Feb/28th/2020 to Nov/1st/2021 were included. The primary endpoint was the composite outcome consisting of ICU admission, need for invasive mechanical ventilation, or death. Results. We evaluated 199 patients who had an index hospitalization due to COVID-19. The median monthly rate of index hospitalization was 2.7 (interquartile range [IQR], 1.6-3.9) per 100,000 clients aged 21 years or less. The median age of the patients was 4.5 years (IQR, 1.4-14.1). At the index hospitalization, the composite outcome rate was 26.6%. The composite outcome was associated with all the previous coexisting morbidities evaluated. The median follow-up was 249.0 days (IQR, 152.0-438.5). There were 27 readmissions (16 patients) within 30 days after the discharge. Conclusions. In conclusion, hospitalized children and adolescents had a composite outcome rate of 26.6% at the index hospitalization. Having previous chronic morbidity was associated with the composite.
The Effect of Educational Intervention Based on Theory of Planned Behavior Approach on Complementary Feeding: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Complementary feeding should be given to infants at 6 months in addition to breastmilk. Mothers’ knowledge and behavior in giving adequate complementary feeding are crucial to prevent malnutrition risk. During the pandemic, conventional nutrition education cannot be maintained and could lead to decreased mothers’ knowledge. This study is aimed at analyzing the effectiveness of nutrition education using online digital platforms (WhatsApp) to improve a mother’s behavior in providing nutritious complementary food based on the theory of planned behavior approach. This was a quasiexperiment with one pretest and posttest design group in the form of education and counselling. Ten educational sessions were developed to improve one or more TPB constructs. Media used for education are PowerPoint, text description, posters, and video tutorials; it is implemented by sending materials through the WhatsApp application. Using 80% power, the sample size was calculated for 155 subjects. Subjects were recruited through the accidental sampling method. Data was collected by the online method using a validated open-ended self-developed questionnaire for knowledge, while attitude, subjective norms, intention, and self-efficacy were measured using a Likert-scale questionnaire, where participants rated the strength of their belief that they could engage in a specific task. The paired -test was used to analyze the difference in outcomes measured. The response rate of this study was accounted for at 77.5%. The mean age of mothers was 28.2 years old; most of them were university graduates (80.2%) and working as private sector workers (40.0%). The average child’s age was 6.6 months old. 78.2% of children were exclusively breastfed. Our study revealed that 10 sessions of nutrition education and counselling covered over 8 days increased the mother’s knowledge ( vs. , respectively, before and after education; ) and resulted in psychological changes including mother’s attitude ( vs. ), subjective norm ( vs. ), perceived behavioral control ( vs. ), self-efficacy ( vs. ), and intention toward giving nutritious complementary feeding ( vs. ; ). WhatsApp nutrition education proved to be effective in improving the mother’s knowledge and behavior in providing nutritious complementary food; thus, it has potential for use. In the future, the Ministry of Health from the district to the national level could implement this type of education as an alternative of conventional nutrition education through scheduled classes.
Mothers’ Care-Seeking Behavior for Common Childhood Illnesses and Its Predictors in Ethiopia: Meta-Analysis
Background. Healthcare-seeking interventions can potentially reduce child mortality; however, many children die in developing countries without reaching a health facility. The World Health Organization reported that 70% of child deaths are related to delay care-seeking. So, this review is aimed at identifying mothers’ care-seeking behavior for common childhood illnesses and predictors in Ethiopia. Methods. Systematic search of studies was done on PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, institutional repositories, Academic Search Premier, and manually from reference lists of identified studies in the English language up to August 2021. The quality of the studies was evaluated by the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) quality appraisal tool for prevalence study. This meta-analysis used the random-effect method using the STATA™ Version 14 software. Result. Fourteen studies involving 8,031 participants were included in this meta-analysis. After correcting Duval and Tweedie’s trim and fill analysis, the overall pooled prevalence of mothers’ care-seeking behavior is 60.73% (95% CI: 43.49-77.97), whereas the highest prevalence, 74.80% (95% CI: 62.60, 87.00) and 67.77%(95% CI: 55.66, 79.87), was seen in Amhara region and urban residents, respectively, while the lowest, 36.49% (95% CI: -27.21, 100.18) and 47.80% (95% CI:-15.31, 110.9), was seen in South Nation Nationality Peoples’ Regions and among rural residents, respectively. Mothers’ educational status () and mothers’ marital status () were significantly associated with mothers’ care-seeking behavior. Conclusion. Even though children are a vulnerable group, mothers’ care-seeking behavior for common childhood illnesses is significantly low. Educational status and marital status were determinants of mothers’ care-seeking behavior. So, all responsible bodies should work on the improvement of mothers’ care-seeking behavior.