Prevalence and Associated Factors of Low Birth Weight among Term Newborns in Dilla Town, Southern EthiopiaRead the full article
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Assessment of Low Birth Weight and Associated Factors Among Neonates in Butajira General Hospital, South Ethiopia, Cross Sectional Study, 2019
Background. Low birth weight is defined as when a newborn weighs less than 2,500 grams within an hour of birth. Globally, it has been known that around 15.5% of newborns were below the normal level of weight at their birth and 95% of these infants lived in developing countries. The main objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of low birth weight among newborns delivered at Butajira General Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia. Methods. An institutional-based cross-sectional study design was employed. All 196 paired study participants (newborn-mother) who were born on a one-month duration of the data collection period were included in the study. A pretested questionnaire was used to gather pertinent information about mother and newborn along with measuring newborn birth weight. Result. Majority of mothers 175 (92.1%) were aged between 20 and 34 years, and 186 (97.9%) were married. About 169 (88.9%) were protestant religion followers. This study showed that the magnitude of low birth weight among study participants was 12.5%, and factors such as maternal medical complication during pregnancy, maternal MUAC less than 23 cm, and birth interval less than 24 months were significantly associated with low birth. Conclusion. The study finding indicated that a significant number of newborns measured underweight which is below the normal level of weight at birth. The study identified factors such as maternal medical condition during pregnancy, maternal MUAC less than 23 cm, and birth interval less than 24 months. Based on study findings, we recommend health care officials, policymakers, key persons in the family, and volunteers to work on nutritional values particularly during pregnancy and before pregnancy. Spacing of birth is crucial to have healthy baby and healthy family even healthy society at large, so attention should be paid on family planning utilization.
Mother’s Knowledge on HIV, Syphilis, Rubella, and Associated Factors in Northern Tanzania: Implications for MTCT Elimination Strategies
Background. Infections transmitted from mother to child (MTCT) during pregnancy, childbirth, and breastfeeding contribute significantly to the high infant and childhood morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan African countries. The most significant and preventable of these include HIV, syphilis, and rubella. To achieve elimination, mothers need to be aware of and to understand effective preventive measures against these infections. Lack of comprehensive knowledge on transmission and prevention of MTCT infections is one of the factors hindering achievement of the elimination goals for these infections. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge of HIV, syphilis, rubella, and associated factors among mothers in the Kilimanjaro region of Tanzania. Methods. We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study in three districts of the Kilimanjaro region from September to October 2016. The study involved mothers with children up to five years of age. Data collection involved the use of a questionnaire, administered by face-to-face interviews. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess predictors of mothers’ knowledge on MTCT infections. Results. A total of 618 mothers were recruited, with a mean age of 29.6 (SD 7.6) years. The overall knowledge on MTCT infections was low. The highest level of knowledge on MTCT infections was regarding HIV (89.2%). Fewer mothers had knowledge of syphilis (27.8%). Rubella was the least known; only 12% of mothers were aware of rubella infection. District of residence and having knowledge of syphilis were predictors for rubella knowledge, while for syphilis knowledge, significant predictors were age group, occupation, and those having knowledge on HIV and rubella. Predictors for HIV knowledge were residential district, having a mobile phone, and those having knowledge of syphilis and rubella. Conclusions. This study confirmed that mothers have low overall knowledge on MTCT infections. To achieve the MTCT elimination goals, targeted interventions to improve knowledge among women of childbearing age are recommended.
Nutritional Status of Children and Its Associated Factors in Selected Earthquake-Affected VDCs of Gorkha District, Nepal
Background. Malnutrition is a major public health problem and most enveloping cause of morbidity and mortality among children and adolescents throughout the world. This study was aimed at assessing the nutritional status and associated factors among 6-10-year-old children in selected earthquake-affected areas of Gorkha district, Nepal. Methods. A community-based cross-sectional study among 420 mothers having children of age groups 6-10 years (with anthropometric measurement among children) was conducted using a mixed method in selected earthquake-affected areas of Gorkha district, Nepal, from October 2015 to April 2016. Gorkha was selected purposively from 14 earthquake-affected districts. Two village development committees were selected randomly among 6 having severe impact. Randomly, 5 wards were selected from each of the 2 village development committees. As the sample was 420, 42 children were selected randomly from every ward. Result. Among the 420 children, 31.9% were underweight, 51.9% were stunted, and 2.9% were wasted after the earthquake. Children who were more prone to being underweight were the following: male children ( 95% CI: 1.01-1.78) and children from illiterate mothers (, 95% CI: 1.85-3.36), illiterate fathers (, 95% CI: 1.32-2.27), and homemaker mothers (, 95% CI: 0.20-0.38); children whose families were using nonimproved sources of water (, 95% CI: 1.07-6.60); and households having food insecurity (, 95% CI: 3.29-51.18). Similarly, children of illiterate fathers (, 95% CI: 1.41-1.97), children of illiterate mothers (, 95% CI: 1.91-2.83), children of homemaker mothers (, 95% CI: 0.49-0.70), children whose family were using treated water (, 95% CI: 0.15-0.67), and children from food insecure households (, CI: 4.05-27.33) were found to be stunted. After adjustment, children from households consuming nonimproved water were 6 times more likely (; 95% CI: 1.59-28.62) to be wasted. Conclusion. Illiterate mothers, illiterate fathers, mothers engaged in occupation other than household work, and food insecure households were found to be independent predictors of underweight and stunting. Nonimproved source of drinking water was found to be independent predictors of wasting.
Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Pediculus Capitis Prevention and Control and Their Predictors among Schoolchildren in Woreta Town, Northwest Ethiopia, 2018: A School-Based Cross-Sectional Study
Background. Pediculus capitis is a human head lice infestation, a major public health issue that is most prevalent in resource-limited countries globally. The current study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of pediculus capitis prevention and control and their predictors among schoolchildren in North West Ethiopia. Methods. About 402 randomly selected schoolchildren from three schools in Woreta town participated in the study from April to June 2018. The outcomes of this study were knowledge, attitude, and self-reported practice of schoolchildren about pediculus capitis prevention and control. We used EPI Info 7.1 and SPSS 21 software for data entry and analysis, respectively. Binary logistic regression was employed to test the association of covariates with the outcome/response variables. Variables with a value <0.2 during the bivariable binary logistic regression analysis were included in the multivariable binary logistic regression analysis. Variables with value <0.05 were declared as significantly associated with outcomes. Results. The mean age of the study participants was 10.19 (±1.62) years. About 58.8%, 45.8%, and 78.6% of the schoolchildren had better self-reported pediculus capitis prevention knowledge, attitude, and practice, respectively. Age of children [9 to 11 years (, 95% C.I (1.10, 4.55)) and>12 years (, 95% C.I (1.56, 9.46))], better practice (, 95% C.I (1.39, 6.18)), and those who were not infested (, 95% C.I (1.14, 4.44)) were predictors of knowledge regarding pediculus capitis prevention. Better practice (, 95% C.I (1.69, 11.09)) and absence of infestation (, 95% C.I (1.64, 5.36)) were predictors of attitude of schoolchildren about pediculus capitis prevention. Number of students in a class [51 to 56 students per classroom, , 95% C.I (1.83, 11.67); 57 to 58 students per classroom, , 95% C.I (2.73, 24.46)], less than five family size (, 95% C.I (1.24, 4.54)), better knowledge (, 95% C.I (1.32, 6.50)), desirable attitude (, 95% C.I (1.60, 11.23)), and absence of infestation (, 95% C.I (1.22, 10.15)) were predictors of self-reported pediculus capitis prevention practice. Conclusion. The knowledge, attitude, and practice of schoolchildren regarding pediculus capitis prevention and control were not satisfactory. To bring change, intensive efforts on factors associated with the knowledge, attitude, and practice should be encouraged.
Mixed Infant Feeding Practice and Associated Factors among HIV-Positive Women under Care in Gondar City’s Public Health Facilities within Two Years Postpartum: A Cross-Sectional Study
Background. Mixed infant feeding practice remains a major setback for effective prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV program and updated evidences on this issue is essential for better interventions. Therefore, this study was aimed at assessing the proportion and associated factors of mixed infant feeding practice among HIV-positive women under care in public health institutions in Gondar city within two years postpartum, Ethiopia, 2017. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 485 HIV-positive women under care in Gondar City’s health facilities from May 1 to June 30/2017. Data were collected via interviewer administered questionnaire supplemented with chart review, entered into Epinfo version 7.0 and then exported to SPSS version 20.0. Both bivariable and multivariable analyses were done, and the statistical significance of each variable was claimed based on the adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) and its value ≤0.05. Result. The proportion of HIV-positive women practicing mixed infant feeding was 21.6%. Whereas, about 73.8% and 4.5% of the mothers demonstrated exclusive breastfeeding and exclusive replacement feeding, respectively. Mixed infant feeding practice was independently predicted by lack of antenatal care (; 95% CI: 3.4, 14.1) and home delivery (; 95% CI: 1.4, 5.4). Conclusion. The magnitude of mixed infant feeding practice was higher than the reports of many other studies, and its predictors were connected to poor adherence to maternal health care service utilization. Hence, stakeholders need to work more on ANC and facility delivery service coverage.
Trends and Determinants of Underweight among Under-Five Children in Ethiopia: Data from EDHS
Background and Aims. Malnutrition among under-five children is one of the major causes of death in low-income countries. Accordingly, health sectors in developing countries are providing renewed attention to the status of children’s nutrition. This study sought to explore the trends and identify the determinants of underweight Ethiopian under-five children across time. Methods. The data in the study was obtained from the 2000, 2005, 2011, and 2016 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Surveys (EDHS). The study involved 27564 under-five children across Ethiopian regions. The status of underweight is determined using weight for age. This anthropometric index has been categorized as “underweight” (-score less than -2) and “not underweight” (-score greater or equal to -2). Logistic regression was used for each survey to detect significant determinants of underweight, while multivariate decomposition was used to determine the trends and identified the child, maternal, and household characteristics that are associated with underweight. Result. The survey in 2000, 2005, 2011, and 2016 showed that 41, 33, 29, and 24% of sampled under-five children were underweight, respectively, and after adjusting for confounders, children were more likely to be underweight if they were male (, , 1.33) in 2016 EDHS. Children whose mother’s age is below 20 (, , 23.1)) were more likely to be underweight compared with children whose mother’s age is above 45. Children whose mothers had no education and primary education only (, 95% CI 1.05, 2.59 and , 95% CI 1.15, 1.78, respectively) were more likely underweight compared to children whose mothers had higher education. Conclusion. Children’s age, birth weight, mother’s education status, and children’s gender were the most common significant factors of underweight. The prevalence of underweight among under-five children declined over time which leads to an achievement in terms of meeting millennium development goals and nutritional targets. Government and concerned stakeholders should work to maintain this achievement for further reduction of underweight among under-five children.