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International Journal of Pediatrics provides a forum for pediatricians who diagnose and treat disorders in infants, children, and adolescents. Studies relate to pediatric subspecialities including adolescent medicine, cardiology, critical care etc.
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Management Outcome of Burn Injury and Associated Factors among Hospitalized Children at Ayder Referral Hospital, Tigray, Ethiopia
Background. Burn injuries are a global public health problem, accounting for an estimated 265,000 deaths. Globally, over half of the disability-adjusted life years lost from fire-related burns which occurred between the ages of 0 and 14 years. The rate of child deaths from burns is currently over 7 times higher in low- and middle-income countries than in high-income countries. In Ethiopia, burn was the second leading cause of death among children from the unintentional injuries. So far, no research had been conducted in terms of assessing the outcome of burn injury in children in Ethiopia and particularly in Tigray region. The aim of this study was to assess the outcome of burn injury and associated factors among hospitalized children of under 18 years at Ayder Referral Hospital in Mekelle, Ethiopia. Method. A retrospective document review was used to assess the outcome of burn injury and associated factors in Ayder Referral Hospital. A total of 382 hospitalized children’s chart from 2011 to 2015 were reviewed using a structured check list. To select the patients’ chart, a simple random sampling technique was used and a sampling frame was prepared based on a registration book. Data was entered, cleaned, and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Result. Almost 70% of the burns were caused by scald, and 45.3% of the burns were confined to the upper extremities. Eighty-two percent of the patients were discharged without complication. Lack of fluid resuscitation within 24 hours (; 95% CI (1.276-5.999)) and a burn patient with malnutrition (; 95% CI (0.069-0.923)) were statically significant with the outcome of burn injury. Conclusion. Majority of the pediatric burn patients were discharged without complication. The most causative agent of these accidents was scald; upper extremities also were the most affected area. The factors associated with the outcome of burn injury according to this study were lack of fluid resuscitation and malnourishment of burn patients.
When Do Newborns Die? Timing and Cause-Specific Neonatal Death in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit at Referral Hospital in Gedeo Zone: A Prospective Cohort Study
Background. Maternal, newborn, and child health have a high stake in the global health agenda, however, neonates’ risk of dying is unacceptable in the world. Ethiopia is one of the countries with high burden of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Yet, timing and cause-specific neonatal death are under-investigated. The present study aimed to determine the timing and cause-specific neonatal death. Methods. We conducted a prospective cohort study at Dilla University Referral Hospital Neonatal Care Unit from November 2016 to January 2018. All admitted neonates to the neonatal care unit were followed from cohort entry up to the occurrence of an event (death) or end of follow-up. We generated descriptive statistics to determine the timing of neonatal death and the cause of deaths. Results. Overall, 11.6% of neonates died during the follow-up. We found that 34.0% and 64.3% of deaths occurred during the first and second weeks of neonatal life, respectively. Neonatal sepsis and low birth weight were the main causes of death and hospital admission. Jaundices and low birth weight were the most common causes of death during the early neonatal period, whereas birth asphyxia, low birth weight, and sepsis were during late neonatal life. However, for other causes of death, the slight difference was seen between the death patterns in early and late neonatal periods. Conclusions. The timing and cause-specific neonatal deaths were varying among different time of the neonatal periods that needs to design context-based policy and interventions.
Prevalence and Associated Factors of Perinatal Asphyxia in Neonates Admitted to Ayder Comprehensive Specialized Hospital, Northern Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study
Background. Perinatal asphyxia is defined as the inability of the newborn to initiate and sustain enough respiration after delivery and is characterized by a marked impairment of gas exchange. It is one of the most common causes of neonatal mortality and morbidity. There are very few studies on perinatal asphyxia in Tigray, and so this study is aimed at assessing the prevalence and associated factors of perinatal asphyxia in Ayder Comprehensive Specialized Hospital NICU, Tigray, Ethiopia. Methods. An institution-based cross-sectional study design was conducted among neonates admitted to Ayder Comprehensive Specialized Hospital from January 1, 2016, to December 30, 2017. Medical records of 267 neonates admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit were selected by a systematic sampling method, and relevant information was collected using a checklist. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 20. Descriptive statistics were computed to determine the prevalence of birth asphyxia and sociodemographic and obstetrics data. Binary logistic regression was used to test associations between the associated factors and perinatal asphyxia. First bivariate analysis was performed to assess the association without controlling the effect of other independent variables. Variables with value < 0.25 were fitted to the multivariable binary logistic regression model. Finally, variables with value < 0.05 were expressed as associated factors of perinatal asphyxia. Results. Of the 267 neonates, 48 neonates had perinatal asphyxia, giving a prevalence of 18%. Prolonged labor (, 95% CI: 1.73-15.63, ), presence of meconium (, 95% CI: 1.34-12.98, ), and preeclampsia (, 95% CI: 2.22-28.37, ) were important determinant factors for birth asphyxia. The case fatality rate of perinatal asphyxia was 37.5%. Conclusion and Recommendations. Prevalence and mortality of asphyxia were high. Prolonged labor, presence of meconium, and preeclampsia were determinant factors for birth asphyxia. Early detection and intervention of high-risk mothers should be carried out by health care providers, and mothers should be monitored with partograph during labor.
Development of Swallowing Function in Infants with Oral Feeding Difficulties
Background. Discharge of preterm infants is often delayed because of their oral feeding difficulties. Independent oral feeding is the last obstacle to pass after managing acute and chronic morbidities. We conducted this study to determine the prevalence, characteristics, and risk factors of swallowing dysfunction and suggest proper interventions to reduce aspiration and chronic lung injury. Methods. Infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (January 2016 to December 2018) who were performed modified barium swallow study due to oral feeding difficulties were enrolled. Modified barium swallow study was age 37 weeks to limit radiation exposure. Clinical data were collected retrospectively. Swallowing dysfunction was defined as inadequate epiglottic closure, laryngeal penetration, or tracheal aspiration according to result of the modified barium swallow study. Results. Among a total of 54 infants enrolled, nine (16.7%) were term infants, 13 (24.1%) were late preterm infants (gestational age, 34-36 weeks), and 32 (59.3%) were early preterm infants (gestational weeks). Gestational age and birth weight were smaller in infants with swallowing dysfunction. Total duration of mechanical ventilation and duration of invasive ventilation were longer in infants with swallowing dysfunction. The risk of swallowing dysfunction increased by 11.2 times for infants with gestational weeks compared to infants with gestational weeks. Swallowing dysfunction was improved in most infants after they became matured. They showed different time and rate of maturation with the help of rehabilitation through swallow therapy and dietary modification with thickened formula. Conclusion. Preterm infants with gestational weeks or with longer ventilation duration are at a higher risk of aspiration. Rehabilitation of swallow therapy and dietary modification with thickened formula can be helpful interventions to prevent aspiration and chronic lung injury and reassure parents until independent oral feeding is possible.
Exclusive Breastfeeding and Associated Factors among Mothers with Twins in the Tamale Metropolis
Background. Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) for the first six months after birth has been recommended by the WHO as the best infant feeding strategy. Data on EBF rates among twin infants in Ghana remain limited and for that matter hypothesized to be low. Aim. The study sought to measure the prevalence of EBF and identify associated factors among twins in the Tamale metropolis. Methods. A cross-sectional survey involving 185 mother-twin pairs was conducted in four health facilities in the Tamale metropolis providing Child welfare Clinic (CWC) services. Socio-demographics data on both mother and twin were taken. Biomedical (e.g. perceived onset of lactation, confidence of producing enough milk, parity, delivery place, delivery type, time of breastfeeding initiation) and bio cultural factors (e.g. family cooperation for current infant feeding, breastfeeding counselling) were also obtained. In-depth interviews were also conducted with a sub sample of mothers (30) who were purposively selected to generate qualitative data on breastfeeding and associated cultural factors in twins as this data was necessary to aid in the explanation of the quantitative results. Results. Only 17% of twin infants were exclusively breastfed for six months. Women who were not confident that they could produce enough breast milk were about 83% less likely to practice exclusive breast-feeding (EBF) compared to those who were confident that they could produce enough breast milk (AOR = 0.17; CI = 0.04, 0.73; p-value = 0.017). Moreover, mothers who had no access to radio were about 87% less likely to practice EBF (AOR = 0.13; CI = 0.02, 0.79; p-value = 0.027). The qualitative analysis also revealed that babies are frequently breastfed because according to the mothers, breastmilk was the only food for the baby. It was also found that begging when you have twins had spiritual underpinnings in the study area. Conclusions. The study shows that, ownership of radio, confidence of producing enough breast milk and admission of the children into NICU were identified as the most important factors affecting exclusive breastfeeding of twins. Beyond Educating, encouraging and assuring twin mothers of their abilities to produce enough breast milk to satisfy their children, healthcare professionals should pay more attention on providing appropriate information on breastfeeding to mothers and caregivers.
Knowledge, Attitude, and Associated Factors towards Colostrum Feeding among Antenatal Care Attendant Mothers in Gununo Health Centre, Wolaita Zone, Ethiopia 2019: Cross-Sectional Study
Background. The role of colostrum in promoting the growth and development of the newborn as well as fighting infections is widely acknowledged. In Ethiopia, there are differences in cultures in the acceptability of colostrum and the prevalence of colostrum feeding. Although breastfeeding is a common practice in Ethiopia, there is a difference in the awareness and attitude of pregnant mothers regarding colostrum feeding. Objectives. To assess knowledge, attitude, and associated factors towards colostrum feeding among antenatal care attendant mothers in Gununo Health Center, South Ethiopia, 2019. Methods. Facility-based cross-sectional study design was conducted among 342 ANC (antenatal care) attendant mothers in Gununo Health Center from April to May 2019. Data was collected by using structured interviewer questionnaires and the subjects were selected through systematic random sampling. Data template was prepared by Epi data-manger version 4.2 and SPSS version 23 was used for analysis. Bivariate and multivariate analysis with 95% CI was employed. Variables found to have a p-value < 0.2 in the binary logistic regression were entered into multivariate analysis and strength of association was declared at p-value < 0.05. Results. Among the study participants 226 (66.1%) were knowledgeable and 39 (11.4%) were not knowledgeable on colostrum feeding. From the respondents, 239 (69.9%) had a positive attitude and the rest 103 (30.1%) mothers had a negative attitude towards colostrum feeding. Respondents who had more than four children (AOR = 1.21, 95% CI [1.31, 2.47], ANC visit (four times and above) (AOR=2.8, 95% CI [2.23, 4.49]), and counseled about colostrum feeding (AOR = 2.29, 95% CI [2.34, 3.74]), were some variables that significantly associated with knowledge of colostrum feeding. Those who had been counseled about breastfeeding (AOR = 1.16, 95% CI [1.59–3.96]), ANC visit (AOR = 11.32, 95% CI [1.14, 112.64]), and multiparas (AOR = 5.68, 95% CI [1.57, 20.53]) were some variables that significantly associated with attitude. Conclusion and Recommendation. Even though the mothers’ knowledge and attitude seem higher than from previously conducted articles in Ethiopia, still gaps were seen clearly on colostrum feeding in the area. It is recommended to set strategies to promote colostrum feeding.