Propranolol for Treatment of Infantile Hemangioma: Efficacy and Effect on Pediatric Growth and DevelopmentRead the full article
International Journal of Pediatrics provides a forum for pediatricians who diagnose and treat disorders in infants, children, and adolescents. Studies relate to pediatric subspecialities including adolescent medicine, cardiology, critical care etc.
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Germinal Matrix-Intraventricular Hemorrhage: A Tale of Preterm Infants
Germinal matrix-intraventricular hemorrhage (GM-IVH) is a common intracranial complication in preterm infants, especially those born before 32 weeks of gestation and very-low-birth-weight infants. Hemorrhage originates in the fragile capillary network of the subependymal germinal matrix of the developing brain and may disrupt the ependymal lining and progress into the lateral cerebral ventricle. GM-IVH is associated with increased mortality and abnormal neurodevelopmental outcomes such as posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, severe cognitive impairment, and visual and hearing impairment. Most affected neonates are asymptomatic, and thus, diagnosis is usually made using real-time transfontanellar ultrasound. The present review provides a synopsis of the pathogenesis, grading, incidence, risk factors, and diagnosis of GM-IVH in preterm neonates. We explore brief literature related to outcomes, management interventions, and pharmacological and nonpharmacological prevention strategies for GM-IVH and posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus.
Case Report of RANBP2 Mutation and Familial Acute Necrotizing Encephalopathy
Introduction. Acute necrotizing encephalopathy (ANE), a rare entity with unique clinical presentation, can be associated significant morbidity and mortality. The majority of ANE reported cases are sporadic. However, reports of extremely rare familial cases are scarce. Case Presentation. We described three cases, two siblings and their cousin, affected by ANE, all of them exhibiting RAN-binding protein 2 (RANBP2) gene mutation. They all presented with seizure and decreased level of consciousness. Unlike the siblings, the cousin eventually expired mainly due to the delay in diagnosis, resulting from late presentation of typical brain involvements of ANE in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Conclusion. The presented cases are the first reports of familial ANE in Iran. Attempt was made to raise awareness on this disease, because high clinical suspicion plays an important role in the early diagnosis and proper management of these patients.
Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome Induced by an Acute Postinfectious Glomerulonephritis
Posterior reversible encephalopathy (PRES) is a rare but a serious disease that affects the central nervous system. PRES is responsible for various but nonspecific neurological symptoms, including confusion, coma, and seizures as well as visual disturbances. Diagnosis is made using cerebral MRI which typically shows at the early stage, bilateral symmetrical parietooccipital hyperintensities on T2 and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequences. Case study. In this article, we base our research on a case study that includes, as a population sample, a 9-year-old boy who suffers from an acute postinfectious glomerulonephritis and arterial hypertension. Two days before diagnosis, he developed confusion with generalized tonic-clonic attacks. His blood pressure was 180/80 mmHg. A cerebral computed tomography made in emergency showed cerebral edema. It was supplemented by magnetic resonance imaging which revealed cortical and posterior cortical lesions which appear as hypointense on T1 and hyperintense on T2 and Flair. An MRI control was performed 40 days later which shows a clear improvement of the occipital lesions. PRES is a radioclinical syndrome characterized by the association of variable neurological signs which reversibility is conditioned by the early diagnosis and the correction of the contributing factors.
Clinical Significance of Screening Electrocardiograms for the Administration of Propranolol for Problematic Infantile Hemangiomas
Objective. Low-dose nonselective β blockade is an effective treatment for problematic infantile hemangioma (PIH). Screening electrocardiograms (ECG) are performed prior to the initiation of propranolol to minimize the risk of exacerbating undiagnosed heart block. How ECG results affect subsequent propranolol usage and patient management remains unclear. We examined the value of ECG prior to propranolol therapy in a quaternary pediatric hospital. Methods. A retrospective chart review was performed on all infants who received propranolol (2 mg/kg/day divided three times daily) to treat PIH at Arkansas Children’s Hospital from Sept. 2008 to Sept. 2015. All available demographic, historical, and clinical data were obtained. ECGs and echocardiographic data were reviewed and summarized. A pediatric cardiologist read all ECGs. Results. A total of 333 patients (75% female) received propranolol therapy. ECG information was available for 317 (95%). Abnormal findings were present on 44/317 (13.9%) of study ECGs. The most common abnormal finding was “voltage criteria for ventricular hypertrophy” (, 76.1%). Two patients had abnormal rhythms; one had first-degree atrioventricular (AV) block, and one had occasional premature atrial contractions. Of the 31 patients who underwent echocardiograms, 20 (35%) were abnormal. 2.9% of infants with PIH treated with propranolol required a follow-up with a cardiologist. No patient was precluded from taking propranolol due to the findings on screening ECG. Conclusions. Screening ECGs prior to propranolol therapy are abnormal in nearly 14% of patients with PIH but are unlikely to preclude therapy. In the absence of prior cardiac history, this cohort offers further evidence suggesting that screening ECGs may be of limited value in determining the safety of propranolol in otherwise healthy infants with PIH.
Individual- and Community-Level Risk Factors Associated with Childhood Diarrhea in Ethiopia: A Multilevel Analysis of 2016 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey
Background. Diarrhea is the second cause of child deaths globally. According to World Health Organization reports, in each year, it kills more than 525,000 children under 5 years. More than half of these deaths occur in five countries including Ethiopia. This study is aimed at identifying both individual- and community-level risk factors of childhood diarrhea in Ethiopia. Methods. Ethiopian demography and health survey of 2016 data were used for the analysis. A total of 10,641 children aged 0–59 months were included in the analysis. A multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression model was used to identify both individual- and community-level risk factors associated with childhood diarrhea. Result. The incidence of childhood diarrhea was 12% (95% CI: 11.39, 12.63). The random-effects model revealed that 67% of the variability of childhood diarrhea was explained by individual- and community-level factors. From the individual-level factors, children aged 36–59 months (; 95% CI: 2.569, 3.900), twin child (; 95% CI: 1.390, 2.527), birth order 5 and above (, 95% CI: 1.721, 2.839), not received any vaccination (; 95% CI: 1.190, 1.527), smaller size of child at birth (; 95% CI: 1.130, 1.504), and never breastfed children (; 95% CI: 2.380, 3.567) associated with the higher incidence of childhood diarrhea. From the community-level factors, living in a rural area (; 95% CI: 1.233, 1.836)), unprotected source of drinking water (; 95% CI: 1.060, 1.567), and availability of unimproved latrine facilities (OR: 1.289; 95% CI: 1.239, 1.759) associated with the higher incidence of childhood diarrhea. Besides, children who live in Afar, Amhara, Benishangul-Gumuz, Gambella, SNNPR, and Dire Dawa regions had higher incidence of childhood diarrhea. Conclusion. The incidence of childhood diarrhea was different from cluster to cluster in Ethiopia. Therefore, integrated child health intervention programs including provisions of toilet facility, access to a clean source of drinking water, educate parents about the importance of breastfeeding, and vaccination have to be strongly implemented in order to reduce the high incidence of childhood diarrhea among children in Ethiopia.
Cerebral Ischemia after Stenting of Coarctation of the Aorta
Percutaneous stenting angioplasty of native coarctation of the aorta is considered a low-risk procedure with high success rate. The incidence of cerebral complications, especially ischemic complications, is very low. We report a case of a 15-year-old boy who underwent a percutaneous stenting angioplasty for a coarctation of the aorta and developed a cerebral infraction 4 hours after the procedure.