Exclusive Breastfeeding and Associated Factors among Mothers with Twins in the Tamale MetropolisRead the full article
International Journal of Pediatrics provides a forum for pediatricians who diagnose and treat disorders in infants, children, and adolescents. Studies relate to pediatric subspecialities including adolescent medicine, cardiology, critical care etc.
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Knowledge, Attitude, and Associated Factors towards Colostrum Feeding among Antenatal Care Attendant Mothers in Gununo Health Centre, Wolaita Zone, Ethiopia 2019: Cross-Sectional Study
Background. The role of colostrum in promoting the growth and development of the newborn as well as fighting infections is widely acknowledged. In Ethiopia, there are differences in cultures in the acceptability of colostrum and the prevalence of colostrum feeding. Although breastfeeding is a common practice in Ethiopia, there is a difference in the awareness and attitude of pregnant mothers regarding colostrum feeding. Objectives. To assess knowledge, attitude, and associated factors towards colostrum feeding among antenatal care attendant mothers in Gununo Health Center, South Ethiopia, 2019. Methods. Facility-based cross-sectional study design was conducted among 342 ANC (antenatal care) attendant mothers in Gununo Health Center from April to May 2019. Data was collected by using structured interviewer questionnaires and the subjects were selected through systematic random sampling. Data template was prepared by Epi data-manger version 4.2 and SPSS version 23 was used for analysis. Bivariate and multivariate analysis with 95% CI was employed. Variables found to have a p-value < 0.2 in the binary logistic regression were entered into multivariate analysis and strength of association was declared at p-value < 0.05. Results. Among the study participants 226 (66.1%) were knowledgeable and 39 (11.4%) were not knowledgeable on colostrum feeding. From the respondents, 239 (69.9%) had a positive attitude and the rest 103 (30.1%) mothers had a negative attitude towards colostrum feeding. Respondents who had more than four children (AOR = 1.21, 95% CI [1.31, 2.47], ANC visit (four times and above) (AOR=2.8, 95% CI [2.23, 4.49]), and counseled about colostrum feeding (AOR = 2.29, 95% CI [2.34, 3.74]), were some variables that significantly associated with knowledge of colostrum feeding. Those who had been counseled about breastfeeding (AOR = 1.16, 95% CI [1.59–3.96]), ANC visit (AOR = 11.32, 95% CI [1.14, 112.64]), and multiparas (AOR = 5.68, 95% CI [1.57, 20.53]) were some variables that significantly associated with attitude. Conclusion and Recommendation. Even though the mothers’ knowledge and attitude seem higher than from previously conducted articles in Ethiopia, still gaps were seen clearly on colostrum feeding in the area. It is recommended to set strategies to promote colostrum feeding.
Prevalence of Bacterial Contamination of Casting Material in a Pediatric Population
Surgical site infection is a relatively common and devastating complication following pediatric orthopedic surgery. Many infections have been determined to be the result of settled airborne particles on surgical equipment and the sterile field. Fiberglass casts are commonly used orthopedic fixation devices before and after surgery; however, fiberglass casting material is expelled during the removal process and represents an uninvestigated area for the possibility of cast saw dust as a source of airborne bacterial contamination in an operating room setting. This study evaluates the prevalence and distribution of microbiota on 90 pediatric casts by collecting and culturing fiberglass cast material from 90 pediatric casts. Bacterial identification was performed using a Bruker Biotyper Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry device. 81 out of 90 casts (90%) showed evidence of microbial contamination. Isolated species were very diverse and ranged from normal skin flora to opportunistic pathogens. The 5 most commonly isolated organisms were Acinetobacter pittii, Enterobacter cloacae, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Staphylococcus hominis. Further investigation is required to determine if casting material is truly a cause of surgical site infection.
Determinants of Preterm Birth among Women Who Gave Birth in Amhara Region Referral Hospitals, Northern Ethiopia, 2018: Institutional Based Case Control Study
Background. Preterm birth refers to a birth of a baby before 37 completed weeks of gestation and after fetal viability. It is now the leading cause of new born deaths. Although identifying its common risk factors is mandatory to decrease preterm birth and thereby neonatal deaths, there was a dearth of studies in the study area. Objective. The aim of this study was to identify determinants of preterm birth among women who gave birth in Amhara region referral hospitals, Northwest Ethiopia, 2018. Method. An institutional based case-control study was conducted from September 01 to December 01/2018. A total of 405 mothers (135 cases and 270 controls) were included in the study. Multistage sampling technique was employed. Data were collected using structured questionnaire through face to face interview and checklist via Chart review. Data were entered into Epi Info version 7 and export to Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20 for analysis. Descriptive statics like mean, frequency and percentage was used to describe the characteristics of participants. Both bivariable and multivariable analyses were carried out. Variable having -value <0.05 in binary logistic regression were the candidate for multivariable analyses. Finally, the statistical significance of the study was claimed based on the Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) with 95% Confidence Interval (CI) and its -value <0.05. Result. The result of multivariable analysis show that mothers with no formal education (AOR = 2.24; 95% CI: 1.28, 3.91), history of abortion (AOR = 2.92; 95% CI: 1.3, 6.4), multiple gestation (AOR = 4.1; 95% CI: 1.7, 9.8), hemoglobin level <11 gm/dl (AOR = 2.75; 95% CI: 1.11, 7.31), premature rupture of membrane (AOR = 6.4; 95% CI: 3.23, 12.7) and pregnancy induced hypertension (AOR = 4.74; 95% CI: 2.49, 9.0) had statistically significant association with experiencing preterm birth. Conclusion and Recommendation. Most of the determinants of preterm birth found to be modifiable. Thus, putting emphasis for prevention of obstetric and gynecologic complications such as anemia, premature rupture of membrane and abortion would decrease the incidence of preterm birth. Moreover, strengthening Information Communication Education about prevention of preterm birth was recommended.
Sick Child Feeding Practice and Associated Factors among Mothers of Children Less Than 24 Months Old, in Burayu Town, Ethiopia
Background. Growing evidence suggests that inadequate intake, poor caring practices, and disease process were some of the immediate and major causes of undernutrition in children. This points out that infant and young child feeding were the basic grounds to improve child survival and promote healthy growth and development. The first two years of a child’s life are particularly important, as optimal nutrition during this period lowers morbidity and mortality, reduces the risk of chronic disease, and enhances the chances of better development. The study was aimed to assess sick infant and young child feeding practice and associated factors among mothers of children aged less than 24 months old in the Burayu town Oromia, Ethiopia. Methods. Institutional based cross-sectional study design was utilized. The study was conducted from April-May, 2015 among 362 mother–child pair attending the maternal and childcare (MCH) units of the two public health facilities in the Burayu town. Bivariate and multivariable analysis was done to test the relationship between the explanatory and outcome variables and the odds ratio with 95% confidence interval and the -value was used to ascertain statistical significance. Result. More than half (53.6%) of all mothers fed their child more frequently at the time of illness than at a time of health. The mean age of respondents was 25.41 ± 3.56 and ranged from 15−30 years. Nearly three out of five (60.8%) of the respondents attended no formal education. A mother who had got counseling on sick child feeding were nearly three times more likely to feed their child appropriately than their counterparts (AOR: 2.95; 95% CI; 1.78, 4.91). Mothers who were housewives were 55% times less likely to feed their sick child appropriately than those who were working (AOR: 0.45; 95% CI; 0.26, 0.79). Those mothers who have a child aged less than 6 months were 88% less likely to practice appropriate sick child feeding than those who have a child aged more than 6 months (AOR: 0.22; 95% CI; 0.12,0.40). Conclusion. Respondents who do not receive counseling on infant and young child feeding have poor sick child feeding practice. Working mother had owned better practices of feeding child particularly at the time of illness. Infants below the age of 6 months deserve more concern in providing frequent breastfeeds at the time of illness.
Prevalence and Management of Septic Shock among Children Admitted at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Longitudinal Survey
Background. Paediatric septic shock is a subset of sepsis associated with high mortality. Implementing the existing international Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines 2012 (SSCG) have contributed to reduction of mortality in many places but these have not been adopted in our setting. The current study aimed at documenting the practice at a national referral hospital. Methods. A hospital based longitudinal survey carried out among 325 children from September to October 2016. Children aged 0 days (≥37 weeks gestation) to12 years were included. The aim was to determine the prevalence, audit the management and determine the outcome at 72 hours of septic shock among children admitted at the Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH). A standard questionnaire was used for data collection and Surviving Sepsis Guideline 2012 was used as a reference for auditing the management of septic shock. Data was stored in MS-EXCEL and analysed in STATA 12. Results. The prevalence of septic shock was 50 (15.4%), with a median age of 4 months. Septic shock was recognized by the attending clinician in 28 (56%). The level of care to children with septic shock was not to the level recommended by the SSCG 2012. Odds of being diagnosed with septic shock reduced with age (odds ratio 4.38 (1.7–11.0), ) and no child aged above 60 months age was diagnosed with septic shock. The mortality was 35 (70%) at 72 hours of admission, with a median of 14 hours. Infants had the highest case fatality of 82.6%. It was found that lack of mechanical ventilation, and presence of hypotension at admission were associated with greater mortality ( values of 0.03 and 0.01 respectively). Conclusion. The prevalence rate of septic shock is 15.4% among children admitted at the KNH and is associated with high mortality. The advanced degree of shock contributed to mortality. The level of care at KNH was not to the level of SSCG 2012, and hence the need to include septic shock management guidelines/protocols in our local Kenyan paediatric guideline.
Cord Leptin, C-Peptide and Insulin Levels in Large for Gestational Age Newborns in Sri Lanka
Background. Large for gestational age (LGA) infants are more prone to be obese and are at a higher risk of metabolic complications later in life. It is established that Asians have lower skeletal muscle mass and excess body fat for a given body mass index. Thus, objective of this study was to determine the relationship between leptin, insulin, C-peptide in cord blood on the birth weight of newborns and to determine whether these parameters are deviated from data already published from other populations. Methods. Umbilical cord blood was collected from 90 newborns (male 50, gestational age 38–42 weeks) which comprise of 43 LGA and 47 appropriate for gestational age (AGA) newborns. Serum leptin, insulin and C-peptide levels were measured and anthropometric parameters of the newborn and maternal characteristics were recorded. Results. Significantly higher () concentrations of leptin, insulin and C-peptide levels (12.670 ± 2.345 ng/mL, 18.725 ± 0.644 µIU/mL, 9.318 ± 0.772 ng/mL) were observed in the LGA group compared to AGA group (7.108 ± 0.906 ng/mL, 13.081 ± 0.428 µIU/mL, 5.439 ± 0.192 ng/mL) and all three parameters showed positive and significant correlations with anthropometric parameters of the newborn and maternal characteristics. Conclusion. Although increased leptin, insulin and C-peptide levels may be involved in insulin resistance, increased adiposity and macrosomia, they were not significantly deviated from published data from other populations. Other factors may contribute to higher fat mass found in Asian populations and finding this relationship during neonatal period is useful to predict risk factors for childhood obesity.