Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Pediatrics
Volume 2010, Article ID 280402, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2010/280402
Clinical Study

The Long-Term Effects of Prematurity and Intrauterine Growth Restriction on Cardiovascular, Renal, and Metabolic Function

1Perinatal Research, Kolling Institute of Medical Research, The University of Sydney, Royal North Shore Hospital, NSW 2065, Australia
2Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Neonatology , Royal North Shore Hospital, NSW 2065, Australia
3Neonatal Pediatrics, North Shore Private Hospital, Westbourne Street, St Leonards, NSW 2065, Australia
4Biostatistics, Sydney School of Public Health, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
5Department of Renal Medicine, Royal North Shore Hospital, NSW 2065, Australia

Received 10 June 2010; Revised 28 July 2010; Accepted 20 October 2010

Academic Editor: Frank Bloomfield

Copyright © 2010 Patricia Y. L. Chan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. W. Rich-Edwards, M. J. Stampfer, J. E. Manson et al., “Birth weight and risk of cardiovascular disease in a cohort of women followed up since 1976,” British Medical Journal, vol. 315, no. 7105, pp. 396–400, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. H. O. Lithell, P. M. McKeigue, L. Berglund, R. Mohsen, U.-B. Lithell, and D. A. Leon, “Relation of size at birth to non-insulin dependent diabetes and insulin concentrations in men aged 50–60 years,” British Medical Journal, vol. 312, no. 7028, pp. 406–410, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. C. M. Law, M. De Swiet, C. Osmond et al., “Initiation of hypertension in utero and its amplification throughout life,” British Medical Journal, vol. 306, no. 6869, pp. 24–27, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. D. J. P. Barker, C. Osmond, S. J. Simmonds, and G. A. Wield, “The relation of small head circumference and thinness at birth to death from cardiovascular disease in adult life,” British Medical Journal, vol. 306, no. 6875, pp. 422–426, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. A. S. Bensky, J. M. Kothadia, and W. Covitz, “Cardiac effects of dexamethasone in very low birth weight infants,” Pediatrics, vol. 97, no. 6, pp. 818–821, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. E. M. Wintour, K. M. Moritz, K. Johnson, S. Ricardo, C. S. Samuel, and M. Dodic, “Reduced nephron number in adult sheep, hypertensive as a result of prenatal glucocorticoid treatment,” Journal of Physiology, vol. 549, no. 3, pp. 929–935, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. C. L. Roberts, C. S. Algert, B. Peat, and D. J. Henderson-Smart, “Trends in place of birth for preterm infants in New South Wales, 1992–2001,” Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 139–143, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. J. Tucker and W. McGuire, “Epidemiology of preterm birth,” British Medical Journal, vol. 329, no. 7467, pp. 675–678, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. C. L. Roberts and P. A. L. Lancaster, “Australian national birthweight percentiles by gestational age,” Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 170, no. 3, pp. 114–118, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. N. G. De Santo, G. Capasso, P. Anastasio et al., “The renal hemodynamic response following a meat meal in children with chronic renal failure and in healthy controls,” Nephron, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 136–142, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group on Hypertension Control in Children and Adolescents, “The fourth report on the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure in children and adolescents,” Pediatrics, vol. 114, no. 2, pp. 555–577, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  12. I. B. Wilkinson, H. MacCallum, L. Flint, J. R. Cockcroft, D. E. Newby, and D. J. Webb, “The influence of heart rate on augmentation index and central arterial pressure in humans,” Journal of Physiology, vol. 525, no. 1, pp. 263–270, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. D. Perloff, C. Grim, J. Flack et al., “Human blood pressure: determination by sphygmomanometry,” Circulation, vol. 88, no. 5, pp. 2460–2470, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. S. Hellerstein, M. Berenbom, P. Erwin, N. Wilson, and S. DiMaggio, “Measurement of renal functional reserve in children,” Pediatric Nephrology, vol. 19, no. 10, pp. 1132–1136, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. K. G. Alberti and P. Z. Zimmet, “Definition, diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus and its complications—part 1: diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Provisional report of a WHO consultation,” Diabetic Medicine, vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 539–553, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. S. A. Smith, J. M. Morris, and E. D. M. Gallery, “Methods of assessment of the arterial pulse wave in normal human pregnancy,” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 190, no. 2, pp. 472–476, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. M. Gamborg, L. Byberg, F. Rasmussen et al., “Birth weight and systolic blood pressure in adolescence and adulthood: meta-regression analysis of sex- and age-specific results from 20 nordic studies,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 166, no. 6, pp. 634–645, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. A.-K. E. Bonamy, M. Norman, and M. Kaijser, “Being born too small, too early, or both: does it matter for risk of hypertension in the elderly?” American Journal of Hypertension, vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 1107–1110, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. R. J. Irving, N. R. Belton, R. A. Elton, and B. R. Walker, “Adult cardiovascular risk factors in premature babies,” Lancet, vol. 355, no. 9221, pp. 2135–2136, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. A.-K. E. Bonamy, A. Bendito, H. Martin, E. Andolf, G. Sedin, and M. Norman, “Preterm birth contributes to increased vascular resistance and higher blood pressure in adolescent girls,” Pediatric Research, vol. 58, no. 5, pp. 845–849, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. S. Johansson, A. Iliadou, N. Bergvall, T. Tuvemo, M. Norman, and S. Cnattingius, “Risk of high blood pressure among young men increases with the degree of immaturity at birth,” Circulation, vol. 112, no. 22, pp. 3430–3436, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. X. Chen and Y. Wang, “Tracking of blood pressure from childhood to adulthood: a systematic review and meta-regression analysis,” Circulation, vol. 117, no. 25, pp. 3171–3180, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. A. A. Davies, G. D. Smith, M. T. May, and Y. Ben-Shlomo, “Association between birth weight and blood pressure is robust, amplifies with age, and may be underestimated,” Hypertension, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 431–436, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. J. F. Reckelhoff, “Gender differences in the regulation of blood pressure,” Hypertension, vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 1199–1208, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. R. Huxley, A. Neil, and R. Collins, “Unravelling the fetal origins hypothesis: is there really an inverse association between birthweight and subsequent blood pressure?” Lancet, vol. 360, no. 9334, pp. 659–665, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. G. Federico, G. I. Baroncelli, T. Vanacore, L. Fiore, and G. Saggese, “Pubertal changes in biochemical markers of growth,” Hormone Research, vol. 60, supplement 1, pp. 46–51, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. D. A. Leon, M. Johansson, and F. Rasmussen, “Gestational age and growth rate of fetal mass are inversely associated with systolic blood pressure in young adults: an epidemiologic study of 165,136 Swedish men aged 18 years,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 152, no. 7, pp. 597–604, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. L. S. Adair and T. J. Cole, “Rapid child growth raises blood pressure in adolescent boys who were thin at birth,” Hypertension, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 451–456, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. Y. F. Cheung, K. Y. Wong, B. C. C. Lam, and N. S. Tsoi, “Relation of arterial stiffness with gestational age and birth weight,” Archives of Disease in Childhood, vol. 89, no. 3, pp. 217–221, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. A. Singhal, M. Kattenhorn, T. J. Cole, J. Deanfield, and A. Lucas, “Preterm birth, vascular function, and risk factors for atherosclerosis,” Lancet, vol. 358, no. 9288, pp. 1159–1160, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. L. Tauzin, P. Rossi, B. Giusano et al., “Characteristics of arterial stiffness in very low birth weight premature infants,” Pediatric Research, vol. 60, no. 5, pp. 592–596, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. C. P. M. Leeson, M. Kattenhorn, R. Morley, A. Lucas, and J. E. Deanfield, “Impact of low birth weight and cardiovascular risk factors on endothelial function in early adult life,” Circulation, vol. 103, no. 9, pp. 1264–1268, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. E. Lurbe, M. I. Torro, E. Carvajal, V. Alvarez, and J. Redón, “Birth weight impacts on wave reflections in children and adolescents,” Hypertension, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 646–650, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. M. Norman, “Low birth weight and the developing vascular tree: a systematic review,” Acta Paediatrica, vol. 97, no. 9, pp. 1165–1172, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. H. Martin, B. Lindblad, and M. Norman, “Endothelial function in newborn infants is related to folate levels and birth weight,” Pediatrics, vol. 119, no. 6, pp. 1152–1158, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. J. J. Fuster, J. Díez, and V. Andrés, “Telomere dysfunction in hypertension,” Journal of Hypertension, vol. 25, no. 11, pp. 2185–2192, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. W. E. Hoy, M. Rees, E. Kile, J. D. Mathews, and Z. Wang, “A new dimension to the Barker hypothesis: low birthweight and susceptibility to renal disease,” Kidney International, vol. 56, no. 3, pp. 1072–1077, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. I. Al Salmi, W. E. Hoy, S. Kondalsamy-Chennakes, Z. Wang, H. Healy, and J. E. Shaw, “Birth weight and stages of CKD: a case-control study in an Australian population,” American Journal of Kidney Diseases, vol. 52, no. 6, pp. 1070–1078, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. S. L. White, V. Perkovic, A. Cass et al., “Is low birth weight an antecedent of CKD in Later Life? A systematic review of observational studies,” American Journal of Kidney Diseases, vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 248–261, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. J. Rodríguez-Soriano, M. Aguirre, R. Oliveros, and A. Vallo, “Long-term renal follow-up of extremely low birth weight infants,” Pediatric Nephrology, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 579–584, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. A. Kistner, G. Celsi, M. Vanpee, and S. H. Jacobson, “Increased blood pressure but normal renal function in adult women born preterm,” Pediatric Nephrology, vol. 15, no. 3-4, pp. 215–220, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. M. G. Keijzer-Veen, H. A. Kleinveld, M. H. Lequin et al., “Renal function and size at young adult age after intrauterine growth restriction and very premature birth,” American Journal of Kidney Diseases, vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 542–551, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. B. M. Brenner, D. L. Garcia, and S. Anderson, “Glomeruli and blood pressure. Less of one, more the other?” American Journal of Hypertension, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 335–347, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. H. S. Mackenzie, E. V. Lawler, and B. M. Brenner, “Congenital oligonephropathy: the fetal flaw in essential hypertension?” Kidney International, no. 55, supplement, pp. S30–S34, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. J. Eriksson, T. Forsén, J. Tuomilehto, C. Osmond, and D. Barker, “Fetal and childhood growth and hypertension in adult life,” Hypertension, vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 790–794, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. R. Manalich, L. Reyes, M. Herrera, C. Melendi, and I. Fundora, “Relationship between weight at birth and the number and size of renal glomeruli in humans: a histomorphometric study,” Kidney International, vol. 58, no. 2, pp. 770–773, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. M. Hughson, A. B. Farris III, R. Douglas-Denton, W. E. Hoy, and J. F. Bertram, “Glomerular number and size in autopsy kidneys: the relationship to birth weight,” Kidney International, vol. 63, no. 6, pp. 2113–2122, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. M. D. Hughson, R. Douglas-Denton, J. F. Bertram, and W. E. Hoy, “Hypertension, glomerular number, and birth weight in African Americans and white subjects in the southeastern United States,” Kidney International, vol. 69, no. 4, pp. 671–678, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. M. G. Keijzer-Veen, M. Schrevel, M. J. J. Finken et al., “Microalbuminuria and lower glomerular filtration rate at young adult age in subjects born very premature and after intrauterine growth retardation,” Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 16, no. 9, pp. 2762–2768, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  50. M. M. Rodríguez, A. H. Gómez, C. L. Abitbol, J. J. Chandar, S. Duara, and G. E. Zilleruelo, “Histomorphometric analysis of postnatal glomerulogenesis in extremely preterm infants,” Pediatric and Developmental Pathology, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 17–25, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. D. R. Matthews, J. P. Hosker, and A. S. Rudenski, “Homeostasis model assessment: insulin resistance and β-cell function from fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in man,” Diabetologia, vol. 28, no. 7, pp. 412–419, 1985. View at Google Scholar
  52. R. H. Willemsen, S. W. K. De Kort, D. C. M. Van Der Kaay, and A. C. S. Hokken-Koelega, “Independent effects of prematurity on metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in short small-for-gestational-age children,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 93, no. 2, pp. 452–458, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. P. Hovi, S. Andersson, J. G. Eriksson et al., “Glucose regulation in young adults with very low birth weight,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 356, no. 20, pp. 2053–2063, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. J. W. Rich-Edwards, G. A. Colditz, M. J. Stampfer et al., “Birthweight and the risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus in adult women,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 130, no. 4, pp. 278–284, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. S. Carlsson, P.-G. Persson, M. Alvarsson et al., “Low birth weight, family history of diabetes, and glucose intolerance in Swedish middle-aged men,” Diabetes Care, vol. 22, no. 7, pp. 1043–1047, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. J. G. Eriksson, T. Forsén, J. Tuomilehto, C. Osmond, and D. J. P. Barker, “Early adiposity rebound in childhood and risk of Type 2 diabetes in adult life,” Diabetologia, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 190–194, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. G. C. Curhan, W. C. Willett, E. B. Rimm, D. Spiegelman, A. L. Ascherio, and M. J. Stampfer, “Birth weight and adult hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and obesity in US men,” Circulation, vol. 94, no. 12, pp. 3246–3250, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. T. Forsen, J. Eriksson, J. Tuomilehto, A. Reunanen, C. Osmond, and D. Barker, “The fetal and childhood growth of persons who develop type 2 diabetes,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 133, no. 3, pp. 176–182, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. P. L. Hofman, F. Regan, W. E. Jackson et al., “Premature birth and later insulin resistance,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 351, no. 21, pp. 2179–2186, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. M. Kaijser, A.-K. E. Bonamy, O. Akre et al., “Perinatal risk factors for diabetes in later life,” Diabetes, vol. 58, no. 3, pp. 523–526, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. I. Al Salmi, W. E. Hoy, S. Kondalsamy-Chennakesavan et al., “Disorders of glucose regulation in adults and birth weight: results from the Australian diabetes, obesity and lifestyle (AusDiab) study,” Diabetes Care, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 159–164, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. P. H. Whincup, S. J. Kaye, C. G. Owen et al., “Birth weight and risk of type 2 diabetes a systematic review,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 300, no. 24, pp. 2886–2897, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. G. P. Ravelli, Z. A. Stein, and M. W. Susser, “Obesity in young men after famine exposure in utero and early infancy,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 295, no. 7, pp. 349–353, 1976. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. D. J. P. Barker, “Fetal nutrition and cardiovascular disease in later life,” British Medical Bulletin, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 96–108, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. D. J. P. Barker, “The origins of the developmental origins theory,” Journal of Internal Medicine, vol. 261, no. 5, pp. 412–417, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. J. P. Collet, D. Floret, P. Cochat et al., “Group meetings for recruitment of children in a clinical trial,” Therapie, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 139–142, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. P. H. Caldwell, S. B. Murphy, P. N. Butow, and J. C. Craig, “Clinical trials in children,” Lancet, vol. 364, no. 9436, pp. 803–811, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus