Table 1: General exercise and training recommendations.

Patients with mild to moderate CF lung diseasePatients with severe CF lung disease

Recommended activitiesCycling, walking, hiking, aerobics, running, rowing, tennis, swimming, strength training, climbing, roller-skating, (trampolining)Ergometric cycling, walking, strengthening exercises, gymnastics, and day-to-day activities

MethodIntermittent and steady-stateIntermittent

Frequency3–5 times per week5 times per week

Duration30–45 minutes20–30 minutes

Intensity70%–85% HRmax; 60%–80% peak ; LT; GET60%–80% HRmax; 50%–70% peak ; LT; GET

Oxygen supplementationIndicated, if SaO2 drops below 90% during exerciseIndicated, if SaO2 drops below 90% during exercise (cave: resting hypoxia)

Activities to avoidBungee-jumping, high diving, and scuba divingBungee-jumping, high diving, scuba diving, and hiking in high altitude

Potential risks associated with exercise, and trainingDehydration
Hypoxemia
Bronchoconstriction
Pneumothorax
Hypoglycaemia
Hemoptysis
Oesophageal bleedings
Cardiac arrhythmias
Rupture of liver and spleen
Spontaneous fractures

HRmax: maximum heart rate; peak : peak oxygen consumption; LT: lactate threshold; GET: gas exchange threshold; SaO2: oxygen saturation.
Depending on the existence of an impaired glucose tolerance.
Depending on the existence of untreated CF-related bone disease.