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International Journal of Pediatrics
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 157237, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/157237
Clinical Study

Perinatal Factors Associated with Cardiovascular Disease Risk among Preschool-Age Children in the United States: An Analysis of 1999–2008 NHANES Data

1Division of Pediatric Clinical Research, Department of Pediatrics, University of Miami Leonard M. Miller School of Medicine, Batchelor Children’s Research Institute, 580 NW 10th Avenue (D820), Miami, FL 33101, USA
2Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Miami Leonard M. Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33101, USA
3Division of Biostatistics, University of Miami Leonard M. Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33101, USA
4Division of Neonatology, University of Miami Leonard M. Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33101, USA

Received 15 October 2011; Revised 11 January 2012; Accepted 26 January 2012

Academic Editor: Tessa J. Roseboom

Copyright © 2012 Sarah E. Messiah et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

We examined the relationships between selected perinatal and early infancy factors (maternal smoking during pregnancy, infant low birthweight, breastfeeding, and early introduction of solid foods [<6 months of age] and increased BMI [≥85th, ≥95th percentiles for age, sex]), waist circumference (WC), C-reactive protein (CRP), triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, non-high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and decreased HDL cholesterol during early childhood. The population-based sample included 3,644 3-to-6-year-old Non-Hispanic White (NHW), Hispanic, and Non-Hispanic Black (NHB) children who participated in the 1999–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Analysis showed that breastfeeding was significantly protective against early childhood obesity (OR 0.43, 95% CI, 0.27–0.69) and the highest quintile for WC (OR 0.58, 95% CI, 0.37–0.32) among NHW, and against the highest quintile of non-HDL cholesterol among NHB (OR 0.56, 95% CI, 0.32–0.98). Additionally, NHW children were significantly more likely to be obese (OR 2.22, 95% CI 1.30–3.78) and have higher CRP levels (OR 1.63, 95% CI, 1.05–2.51) if their mothers smoked during pregnancy. These results support the observation that breastfeeding may be protective against early childhood obesity while maternal smoking during pregnancy is a risk factor for obesity and increased CRP levels among NHW young children.