Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Pediatrics
Volume 2012, Article ID 965159, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/965159
Review Article

Respiratory Support in Meconium Aspiration Syndrome: A Practical Guide

1Department of Paediatrics, Royal Hobart Hospital and University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS 7000, Australia
2Neonatal Respiratory Group, Menzies Research Institute, Hobart, TAS 7000, Australia

Received 15 September 2011; Accepted 19 December 2011

Academic Editor: Mei-Jy Jeng

Copyright © 2012 Peter A. Dargaville. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. T. E. Wiswell and M. A. Henley, “Intratracheal suctioning, systemic infection, and the meconium aspiration syndrome,” Pediatrics, vol. 89, no. 2, pp. 203–206, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. J. T. Harries, “Meconium in health and disease,” British Medical Bulletin, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 75–78, 1978. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. B. K. Rubin, R. P. Tomkiewicz, M. E. Patrinos, and D. Easa, “The surface and transport properties of meconium and reconstituted meconium solutions,” Pediatric Research, vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 834–838, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. D. Moses, B. A. Holm, P. Spitale, M. Y. Liu, and G. Enhorning, “Inhibition of pulmonary surfactant function by meconium,” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 164, no. 2, pp. 477–481, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. B. Sun, T. Curstedt, and B. Robertson, “Surfactant inhibition in experimental meconium aspiration,” Acta Paediatrica, vol. 82, no. 2, pp. 182–189, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. E. Herting, P. Rauprich, G. Stichtenoth, G. Walter, J. Johansson, and B. Robertson, “Resistance of different surfactant preparations to inactivation by meconium,” Pediatric Research, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 44–49, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. D. G. Oelberg, S. A. Downey, and M. M. Flynn, “Bile salt-induced intracellular Ca++ accumulation in type II pneumocytes,” Lung, vol. 168, no. 6, pp. 297–308, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. P. A. Dargaville, M. South, and P. N. McDougall, “Surfactant and surfactant inhibitors in meconium aspiration syndrome,” The Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 138, no. 1, pp. 113–115, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  9. A. J. de Beaufort, D. M. V. Pelikan, J. G. R. Elferink, and H. M. Berger, “Effect of interleukin 8 in meconium on in-vitro neutrophil chemotaxis,” The Lancet, vol. 352, no. 9122, pp. 102–105, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. A. Castellheim, P. H. H. Lindenskov, A. Pharo, G. Aamodt, O. D. Saugstad, and T. E. Mollnes, “Meconium aspiration syndrome induces complement-associated systemic inflammatory response in newborn piglets,” Scandinavian Journal of Immunology, vol. 61, no. 3, pp. 217–225, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  11. G. Holcberg, M. Huleihel, M. Katz et al., “Vasoconstrictive activity of meconium stained amniotic fluid in the human placental vasculature,” European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, vol. 87, no. 2, pp. 147–150, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  12. P. A. Dargaville and J. F. Mills, “Surfactant therapy for meconium aspiration syndrome: current status,” Drugs, vol. 65, no. 18, pp. 2569–2591, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. D. C. Tyler, J. Murphy, and F. W. Cheney, “Mechanical and chemical damage to lung tissue caused by meconium aspiration,” Pediatrics, vol. 62, no. 4, pp. 454–459, 1978. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. N. Tran, C. Lowe, E. M. Sivieri, and T. H. Shaffer, “Sequential effects of acute meconium obstruction on pulmonary function,” Pediatric Research, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 34–38, 1980. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. A. M. Davey, J. D. Becker, and J. M. Davis, “Meconium aspiration syndrome: physiological and inflammatory changes in a newborn piglet model,” Pediatric Pulmonology, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 101–108, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. G. Dimitriou and A. Greenough, “Measurement of lung volume and optimal oxygenation during high frequency oscillation,” Archives of Disease in Childhood, vol. 72, no. 3, supplement, pp. F180–F183, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  17. T. F. Yeh, L. D. Lilien, A. Barathi, and R. S. Pildes, “Lung volume, dynamic lung compliance, and blood gases during the first 3 days of postnatal life in infants with meconium aspiration syndrome,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 10, no. 9, pp. 588–592, 1982. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. T. E. Wiswell, S. S. Peabody, J. M. Davis, M. V. Slayter, R. C. Bent, and T. A. Merritt, “Surfactant therapy and high-frequency jet ventilation in the management of a piglet model of the meconium aspiration syndrome,” Pediatric Research, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 494–500, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. T. F. Yeh, V. Harris, G. Srinivasan, L. Lilien, S. Pyati, and R. S. Pildes, “Roentgenographic findings in infants with meconium aspiration syndrome,” The Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 242, no. 1, pp. 60–63, 1979. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  20. S. T. Higgins, A. M. Wu, N. Sen, A. R. Spitzer, and A. Chander, “Meconium increases surfactant secretion in isolated rat alveolar type II cells,” Pediatric Research, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 443–447, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. C. A. Jones, R. G. Cayabyab, K. Y. C. Kwong et al., “Undetectable interleukin (IL)-10 and persistent IL-8 expression early in hyaline membrane disease: a possible developmental basis for the predisposition to chronic lung inflammation in preterm newborns,” Pediatric Research, vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 966–975, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. R. G. Cayabyab, K. Kwong, C. Jones, P. Minoo, and M. Durand, “Lung inflammation and pulmonary function in infants with meconium aspiration syndrome,” Pediatric Pulmonology, vol. 42, no. 10, pp. 898–905, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  23. T. Fuchimukai, T. Fujiwara, A. Takahashi, and G. Enhorning, “Artificial pulmonary surfactant inhibited by proteins,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 62, no. 2, pp. 429–437, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. B. A. Holm and R. H. Notter, “Effects of hemoglobin and cell membrane lipids on pulmonary surfactant activity,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 63, no. 4, pp. 1434–1442, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. F. Possmayer, “Physicochemical aspects of pulmonary surfactant,” in Fetal and Neonatal Physiology, R. A. Polin, W. W. Fox, and S. H. Abman, Eds., pp. 1014–1034, W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  26. D. P. Carlton, S. C. Cho, P. Davis, M. Lont, and R. D. Bland, “Surfactant treatment at birth reduces lung vascular injury and edema in preterm lambs,” Pediatric Research, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 265–270, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. D. S. Brudno, R. F. Boedy, and W. P. Kanto Jr., “Compliance, alveolar-arterial oxygen difference, and oxygenation index changes in patients managed with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation,” Pediatric Pulmonology, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 19–23, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. M. R. Beeram and R. Dhanireddy, “Effects of saline instillation during tracheal suction on lung mechanics in newborn infants,” Journal of Perinatology, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 120–123, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. A. Kugelman, K. Saiki, A. C. Platzker, and M. Garg, “Measurement of lung volumes and pulmonary mechanics during weaning of newborn infants with intractable respiratory failure from extracorporeal membrane oxygenation,” Pediatric Pulmonology, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 145–151, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. M. Szymankiewicz, J. Gadzinowski, and K. Kowalska, “Pulmonary function after surfactant lung lavage followed by surfactant administration in infants with severe meconium aspiration syndrome,” Journal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 125–130, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  31. C. A. Ramsden and E. O. Reynolds, “Ventilator settings for newborn infants,” Archives of Disease in Childhood, vol. 62, no. 5, pp. 529–538, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. Y. K. Abu-Osba, “Treatment of persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn: update,” Archives of Disease in Childhood, vol. 66, no. 1, pp. 74–77, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. T. E. Wiswell and R. C. Bent, “Meconium staining and the meconium aspiration syndrome: unresolved issues,” Pediatric Clinics of North America, vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 955–981, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. B. S. Singh, R. H. Clark, R. J. Powers, and A. R. Spitzer, “Meconium aspiration syndrome remains a significant problem in the NICU: outcomes and treatment patterns in term neonates admitted for intensive care during a ten-year period,” Journal of Perinatology, vol. 29, no. 7, pp. 497–503, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  35. T. E. Wiswell, C. M. Gannon, J. Jacob et al., “Delivery room management of the apparently vigorous meconium-stained neonate: results of the multicenter, international collaborative trial,” Pediatrics, vol. 105, no. 1, pp. 1–7, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. P. A. Dargaville and B. Copnell, “The epidemiology of meconium aspiration syndrome: incidence, risk factors, therapies, and outcome,” Pediatrics, vol. 117, no. 5, pp. 1712–1721, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  37. G. M. Cleary and T. E. Wiswell, “Meconium-stained amniotic fluid and the meconium aspiration syndrome: an update,” Pediatric Clinics of North America, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 511–529, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. J. P. Goldsmith, “Continuous positive airway pressure and conventional mechanical ventilation in the treatment of meconium aspiration syndrome,” Journal of Perinatology, vol. 28, supplement 3, pp. S49–S55, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  39. J. V. Aranda, W. Carlo, P. Hummel, R. Thomas, V. T. Lehr, and K. J. S. Anand, “Analgesia and sedation during mechanical ventilation in neonates,” Clinical Therapeutics, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 877–899, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  40. J. Y. Chen, U. P. Ling, and J. H. Chen, “Comparison of synchronized and conventional intermittent mandatory ventilation in neonates,” Acta Paediatrica Japonica, vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 578–583, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. G. Bernstein, F. L. Mannino, G. P. Heldt et al., “Randomized multicenter trial comparing synchronized and conventional intermittent mandatory ventilation in neonates,” The Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 128, no. 4, pp. 453–463, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. G. Bernstein, E. Knodel, and G. P. Heldt, “Airway leak size in neonates and autocycling of three flow-triggered ventilators,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 23, no. 10, pp. 1739–1744, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. W. W. Fox, L. S. Berman, J. J. Downes Jr., and G. J. Peckham, “The therapeutic application of end expiratory pressure in the meconium aspiration syndrome,” Pediatrics, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 214–217, 1975. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. M. E. Probyn, S. B. Hooper, P. A. Dargaville et al., “Positive end expiratory pressure during resuscitation of premature lambs rapidly improves blood gases without adversely affecting arterial pressure,” Pediatric Research, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 198–204, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  45. B. R. Wood, “Physiologic principles,” in Assisted Ventilation of the Neonate, J. P. Goldsmith, E. H. Karotkin et al., Eds., pp. 15–40, Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  46. A. Gupta, S. Rastogi, R. Sahni et al., “Inhaled nitric oxide and gentle ventilation in the treatment of pulmonary hypertension of the newborn—a single-center, 5-year experience,” Journal of Perinatology, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 435–441, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  47. M. C. Walsh-Sukys, J. E. Tyson, L. L. Wright et al., “Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn in the era before nitric oxide: practice variation and outcomes,” Pediatrics, vol. 105, no. 1, pp. 14–20, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. K. D. Hendricks-Munoz and J. P. Walton, “Hearing loss in infants with persistent fetal circulation,” Pediatrics, vol. 81, no. 5, pp. 650–656, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. D. G. Tingay, J. F. Mills, C. J. Morley, A. Pellicano, and P. A. Dargaville, “Trends in use and outcome of newborn infants treated with high frequency ventilation in Australia and New Zealand, 1996–2003,” Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 160–166, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  50. A. Pellicano, D. G. Tingay, J. F. Mills, S. Fasulakis, C. J. Morley, and P. A. Dargaville, “Comparison of four methods of lung volume recruitment during high frequency oscillatory ventilation,” Intensive Care Medicine, vol. 35, no. 11, pp. 1990–1998, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  51. P. A. Dargaville, J. F. Mills, B. Copnell, P. M. Loughnan, P. N. McDougall, and C. J. Morley, “Therapeutic lung lavage in meconium aspiration syndrome: a preliminary report,” Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, vol. 43, no. 7-8, pp. 539–545, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  52. W. E. Hachey, F. G. Eyal, N. L. Curtet-Eyal, and F. E. Kellum, “High-frequency oscillatory ventilation versus conventional ventilation in a piglet model of early meconium aspiration,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 556–561, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. J. P. Kinsella, W. E. Truog, W. F. Walsh et al., “Randomized, multicenter trial of inhaled nitric oxide and high-frequency oscillatory ventilation in severe, persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn,” The Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 131, no. 1, pp. 55–62, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. J. M. Carter, D. R. Gerstmann, R. H. Clark et al., “High-frequency oscillatory ventilation and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for the treatment of acute neonatal respiratory failure,” Pediatrics, vol. 85, no. 2, pp. 159–164, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. M. S. Paranka, R. H. Clark, B. A. Yoder, and D. M. Null Jr., “Predictors of failure of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation in term infants with severe respiratory failure,” Pediatrics, vol. 95, no. 3, pp. 400–404, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. M. Keszler, B. Molina, A. B. Butterfield, and K. N. S. Subramanian, “Combined high-frequency jet ventilation in a meconium aspiration model,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 34–38, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. T. E. Wiswell, N. H. Foster, M. V. Slayter, and W. E. Hachey, “Management of a piglet model of the meconium aspiration syndrome with high-frequency or conventional ventilation,” American Journal of Diseases of Children, vol. 146, no. 11, pp. 1287–1293, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. J. M. Davis, S. E. Richter, J. W. Kendig, and R. H. Notter, “High-frequency jet ventilation and surfactant treatment of newborns with severe respiratory failure,” Pediatric Pulmonology, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 108–112, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. W. A. Engle, M. C. Yoder, S. P. Andreoli, R. K. Darragh, C. D. Langefeld, and S. L. Hui, “Controlled prospective randomized comparison of high-frequency jet ventilation and conventional ventilation in neonates with respiratory failure and persistent pulmonary hypertension,” Journal of Perinatology, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 3–9, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. O. Kamlin, P. Loughnan, P. Dargaville, J. Mills, and P. McDougall, “Outcomes from the first seven years of rescue therapy with high frequency jet ventilation in critically ill newborns in a tertiary referral centre,” in Proceedings of the 19th Annual Conference of High Frequency Ventilation in Infants, Snowbird, Utah, USA, 2002.
  61. H. L. Halliday, C. P. Speer, and B. Robertson, “Treatment of severe meconium aspiration syndrome with porcine surfactant. Collaborative Surfactant Study Group,” European Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 155, no. 12, pp. 1047–1051, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  62. R. D. Findlay, H. W. Taeusch, and F. J. Walther, “Surfactant replacement therapy for meconium aspiration syndrome,” Pediatrics, vol. 97, no. 1, pp. 48–52, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. A. Lotze, B. R. Mitchell, D. I. Bulas et al., “Multicenter study of surfactant (beractant) use in the treatment of term infants with severe respiratory failure. Survanta in Term Infants Study Group,” The Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 132, no. 1, pp. 40–47, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. Chinese Collaborative Study Group for Neonatal Respiratory Diseases, “Treatment of severe meconium aspiration syndrome with porcine surfactant: a multicentre, randomized, controlled trial,” Acta Paediatrica, vol. 94, no. 7, pp. 896–902, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  65. A. Maturana, J. Torres-Pereyra, R. Salinas, P. Astudillo, F. R. Moya, and TheChile Surf Group, “A randomized trial of natural surfactant for moderate to severe meconium aspiration syndrome,” Pediatric Research, vol. 57, article 1545A, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  66. A. I. El Shahed, P. Dargaville, A. Ohlsson, and R. F. Soll, “Surfactant for meconium aspiration syndrome in full term/near term infants,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, no. 3, Article ID CD002054, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  67. C. G. Cochrane, S. D. Revak, T. A. Merritt et al., “Bronchoalveolar lavage with KL4-surfactant in models of meconium aspiration syndrome,” Pediatric Research, vol. 44, no. 5, pp. 705–715, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. T. E. Wiswell, G. R. Knight, N. N. Finer et al., “A multicenter, randomized, controlled trial comparing Surfaxin (Lucinactant) lavage with standard care for treatment of meconium aspiration syndrome,” Pediatrics, vol. 109, no. 6, pp. 1081–1087, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. P. A. Dargaville, J. F. Mills, B. M. Headley et al., “Therapeutic lung lavage in the piglet model of meconium aspiration syndrome,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 168, no. 4, pp. 456–463, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  70. P. A. Dargaville, B. Copnell, J. F. Mills et al., “Randomized controlled trial of lung lavage with dilute surfactant for meconium aspiration syndrome,” The Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 158, no. 3, pp. 383–389, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  71. S. Tripathi, A. Saili, and R. Dutta, “Inflammatory markers in meconium induced lung injury in neonates and effect of steroids on their levels: a randomized controlled trial,” Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 103–107, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. N. N. Finer and K. J. Barrington, “Nitric oxide for respiratory failure in infants born at or near term,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, no. 4, Article ID CD000399, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  73. D. L. Wessel, I. Adatia, L. J. van Marter et al., “Improved oxygenation in a randomized trial of inhaled nitric oxide for persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn,” Pediatrics, vol. 100, no. 5, article E7, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. S. O. Guthrie, W. F. Walsh, K. Auten, and R. H. Clark, “Initial dosing of inhaled nitric oxide in infants with hypoxic respiratory failure,” Journal of Perinatology, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 290–294, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  75. B. L. Short, “Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation: use in meconium aspiration syndrome,” Journal of Perinatology, vol. 28, supplement 3, pp. S79–S83, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  76. ELSO Registry. ECLS Centers by Category, December 2011, http://www.elso.med.umich.edu/CenterByCategory.asp.
  77. S. Petrou and L. Edwards, “Cost effectiveness analysis of neonatal extracorporeal membrane oxygenation based on four year results from the UK Collaborative ECMO Trial,” Archives of Disease in Childhood, vol. 89, no. 3, supplement, pp. F263–F268, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. P. J. Fliman, R. A. O. deRegnier, J. P. Kinsella, M. Reynolds, L. L. Rankin, and R. H. Steinhorn, “Neonatal extracorporeal life support: impact of new therapies on survival,” The Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 148, no. 5, pp. 595–599, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  79. UK Collaborative ECMO Trial Group, “UK collaborative randomised trial of neonatal extracorporeal membrane oxygenation,” The Lancet, vol. 348, no. 9020, pp. 75–82, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. M. Mugford, D. Elbourne, and D. Field, “Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for severe respiratory failure in newborn infants,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, no. 3, Article ID CD001340, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  81. R. Foust, N. N. Tran, C. Cox et al., “Liquid assisted ventilation: an alternative ventilatory strategy for acute meconium aspiration injury,” Pediatric Pulmonology, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 316–322, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. T. Nakamura, S. Matsuzawa, M. Sugiura, and M. Tamura, “A randomised control study of partial liquid ventilation after airway lavage with exogenous surfactant in a meconium aspiration syndrome animal model,” Archives of Disease in Childhood, vol. 82, no. 2, supplement, pp. F160–F162, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. M. J. Jeng, W. J. Soong, Y. S. Lee et al., “Effects of therapeutic bronchoalveolar lavage and partial liquid ventilation on meconium-aspirated newborn piglets,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 1099–1105, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  84. R. L. Schlösser, A. Veldman, D. Fischer, B. Funk, J. Brand, and V. von Loewenich, “Comparison of effects of perflubron and surfactant lung lavage on pulmonary gas exchange in a piglet model of meconium aspiration,” Biology of the Neonate, vol. 81, no. 2, pp. 126–131, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. S. Sriram, S. N. Wall, B. Khoshnood, J. K. Singh, H. L. Hsieh, and K. S. Lee, “Racial disparity in meconium-stained amniotic fluid and meconium aspiration syndrome in the United States, 1989–2000,” Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 102, no. 6, pp. 1262–1268, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. P. Nolent, F. Hallalel, J. Y. Chevalier, C. Flamant, and S. Renolleau, “Meconium aspiration syndrome requiring mechanical ventilation: incidence and respiratory management in France (2000-2001),” Archives de Pediatrie, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 417–422, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  87. T. E. Wiswell, J. M. Tuggle, and B. S. Turner, “Meconium aspiration syndrome: have we made a difference?” Pediatrics, vol. 85, no. 5, pp. 715–721, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. H. C. Lin, B. H. Su, T. W. Lin, C. T. Peng, and C. H. Tsai, “Risk factors of mortality in meconium aspiration syndrome: review of 314 cases,” Acta Paediatrica Taiwanica, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 30–34, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. T. M. Berger, E. N. Allred, and L. J. van Marter, “Antecedents of clinically significant pulmonary hemorrhage among newborn infants,” Journal of Perinatology, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 295–300, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. B. Yuksel, A. Greenough, and H. R. Gamsu, “Neonatal meconium aspiration syndrome and respiratory morbidity during infancy,” Pediatric Pulmonology, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 358–361, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. S. Swaminathan, J. Quinn, M. W. Stabile, D. Bader, C. G. Platzker, and T. G. Keens, “Long-term pulmonary sequelae of meconium aspiration syndrome,” The Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 114, no. 3, pp. 356–361, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. N. Beligere and R. Rao, “Neurodevelopmental outcome of infants with meconium aspiration syndrome: report of a study and literature review,” Journal of Perinatology, vol. 28, supplement 3, pp. S93–S101, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  93. J. E. Walstab, R. J. Bell, D. S. Reddihough, S. P. Brennecke, C. K. Bessell, and N. A. Beischer, “Factors identified during the neonatal period associated with risk of cerebral palsy,” Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 342–346, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus