Table 1: Studies of non-traffic low-speed vehicle runovers (LSVRO) and driveway runovers (DR) where the study outcome is non-fatal injury.

StudyStudy periodCountryStudy designaType of incidentbAge of
Study factorscMain findings

Shepherd et al. [15]2002–2006NZCCDR<7 years269 5-fold increased risk associated with a driveway exiting onto busy road
3-fold increased risk associated with driveways running along property boundary
3-fold increased risk associated with presence of additional parking
2-fold increased risk associated with driveway length >12 m
57% cases were males, median age 1 year

Nhan et al. [16]1994–2003CanadaCSDR0–13 years49
69% of cases were aged 1–4 years
74% of cases were male
91% of cases admitted to hospital

Pinkney et al. [17]1998–2003USACDR<10 years175 Incidence of 7.1 per 100,000 for driveway backovers in those aged <10 years
4-fold increased risk of driveway backover associated with minivan
2.5-fold increase risk of driveway backover associated with trucks
55% male children, in 48% of cases a family member was driver

Holland et al. [18]2002–2005AustraliaCS
DR<16 years36 58% males; mean age = 48 months, 69% child’s own home
85% -no separation from play areas
85% 4WDs and LCV
85% vehicle was reversing
81% driver known to the child
58% of parents of injured child attributed lack of supervision leading to injury

CDC [19]2001–2003USCSLSVRO1–14 years168 48% were children aged 1–4 years
55% were male children, 86% were pedestrian
children as pedestrian sustained injuries at a rate
6 times (3.78) higher
when compared to children riding a bicycle or
tricycle (0.62)
67% were non-traffic events (2.67)
80% of injuries occurred at home (47.6%) or
in a public property (31.9%)
40% of injuries occurred in driveways or parking lots

Mayr et al. [20]1993–2001AustriaCSLSVRO0–14 years32 75% 0–5 years, 43% between 0–2 yrs
70% ran over by reversing vehicles or rolling backwards
63% were male children
37% occurred in residential driveways
44% cases cars driven by adult family members

Silen et al. [7]1990–1994USCSDR<16 years24 69% of cases involved adult driver, 15% involved older child or sibling
35% aged <2 years
50% of cases male

Agran et al.[21] 1987–1989USCSDR<15 years39 74% of cases were males
56% were aged <2 years
78% of cases involved a reversing vehicle

Roberts et al. [22] 1992-1993NZCSLSVRO<15 years30 83% of cases occurred in driveways
Median age was 1.5 years (range 0–7 yrs), male: female ratio 1.5 : 1
79% of cases occurred single dwellings with private driveways

Bell et al. [11]1971–1979USCSLSVRO0–13
14 Mean age = 3 years, range 5 months to 13 years
12 cases (86%) were males
5 cases (36%) involved reversing vehicle by adult driver
4 cases (29%) involved unattended children

aStudy design: CS: case series; CC: case control, AC: aggregate cross-sectional.
bLSVRO: non-traffic low-speed vehicle runover; DR: non-traffic low-speed vehicle runover occurring in domestic driveway.
c”indicates study conducts subgroup analysis of this study factor.
A: age; B: sex; C: race/ethnicity; D: SES; E: housing type; F: driver characteristics; G: vehicle type; H: direction of vehicle; I: environmental characteristics; J: behavioural characteristics; K: child anthropometric characteristics; L: temporal factors, M: peer-reviewed.