Table 3: Studies of non-traffic low-speed vehicle runovers (LSVRO) and driveway runovers (DR) where the study outcome is nonfatal injury and mortality.

StudyStudy periodCountryStudy designaType of incidentbAge of
Study factorscMain findings

Rice et al. [34]2005–2007USCSLSVRO≤14 years9474% of cases were ≤4 years, 10% were fatal injuries
In a subsample of 21 cases, median age −28 months; 62% were 1 or 2 years old (13 cases)
81% of cases were male (17 cases)
62% cases were back-over injuries (13 cases)
71% cases involved SUV, pick-up truck, or van
76% were drivers known to the child, 52% were parents
57% (12) occurred in driveways mainly home driveways
43% incidents occurred between 11 a.m.–5 p.m.

QTR [35] 2005–2009AustraliaCSDR0–14
53Majority of cases aged <1 year
60% were male children

Hunter et al. [36]2006–2009NZCSDR0–15
1267% of cases aged <1 year (8 cases)
58% of cases were males (7 cases)
58% cases were Maori group (7 cases), all cases were driveway runover incidents.
3 cases were hit by car, 2 cases by a truck and a van

Hsiao et al. [37]2001–2005NZCSDR<15 years93 80% of cases occurred at home
64% of cases used driveway as usual play area
73% of cases aged 0–4 years
68% of cases were Maori or Pacific groups

Davey et al. [38]1998–2000AustraliaCSDR<15 years7640% of cases occurred in driveways
57% of cases were males
51% of cases aged <4 years
61% of cases involved cars
28% of cases involved a parent driving

Fenton et al. [8]1997–2004USCSDR
≤5 years495Younger children (≤5 yrs) accounted for 85%
driveway injuries
Median age −2.9 yrs
55% were cars
Trucks (25%) carried highest mortality of 19%
66% between May and October
52% occurring Thursday and Saturday
56% between 3 p.m.–8 p.m.

QISU [39]1998–2003AustraliaCSLSVRO<15 years539Driveways were common location (17%) for lowspeed run over in children aged <5 yrs
26% of cases a reversing vehicle was involved

Murphy et al. [40]1998–2001NZCSDR<15 years7686% <4 years old; 58% boys
74% were Maori and Pacific Islander groups
71% were cars, 20% van and light trucks
71% home driveway, 21% in shared driveways
68% reversed over by relative
84% of events occurred in rental property

Di Scala et al. [41] 1995–2000USCSDR<20 years42168% of children in driveways were 0–4 years
60% occurred among male children

Nadler et al. [42]1986–1999USCSDRMean age 3.37
6480% of cases involved reversing vehicle
48% of cases involved an SUV or truck; 41% involved cars
52% of cases were males, mean age = 3.37 ± 2.4
34% of cases <2
70% were vehicles driven by an adult driver

Holland et al. [13]1988–2000AustraliaCSDR<16 years5576% of cases were male
76% of cases involved reversing vehicle
71% of cases involve parent/relative as driver
55% of cases involved cars

Partrick et al. [9]1991–1996USCS DR<18 years5180% of cases <5 years, 12% were between 5–9 years
59% of cases were male
34% of cases involved parent as driver
37% child was playing under or behind parked vehicle
20% children walking behind moving vehicle

Roberts et al. [43]1992–1994NZCCDR<15 years2123-fold increased risk associated with absence of physical separation of driveway from play area (PAR = 50%)
3-fold increased risk associated with shared driveway, households with 3 children or more, and child with NZ ethnic origin
2-fold increased risk associated with children living in rental accommodation, if child resided in the premises for <3 months

Roberts et al. [44]1986–1990NZCSLSVRO<15 years99
7 of 8 fatalities occurred by a reversing vehicle in a driveway
5 children out of 8 deaths were females
93% of cases occurred in driveways
84% of cases involved a reversing vehicle
61% of cases involved a friend/relative driver

Stevenson et al. [45]1980–1989AustraliaCSDR0–14 years5151 cases (4%) of total pedestrian injuries occurred in home driveways

Winn et al. [12]1987–1989USCSLSVRO<15 years5838% of cases were aged 0–2 years
63% of Hispanic children were aged 3–5 years
43% of white children were aged 0–2 years

aStudy design: CS: case series; CC: case control, AC: aggregate cross-sectional
bLSVRO: non-traffic low-speed vehicle runover; DR: non-traffic low-speed vehicle runover occurring in domestic driveway
c”indicates study conducts sub-group analysis of this study factor
A: age; B: sex; C: race/ethnicity; D: SES; E: housing type; F: driver characteristics; G: vehicle type; H: direction of vehicle; I: environmental characteristics; J: behavioural characteristics; K: child anthropometric characteristics; L: temporal factors, M: peer-reviewed.