International Journal of Pediatrics / 2013 / Article / Tab 4

Review Article

What Do We Know of Childhood Exposures to Metals (Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, and Mercury) in Emerging Market Countries?

Table 4

Conclusions and recommendations.


(i) There is evidence of pediatric exposure to As, Cd, Pb, and Hg in Emerging Market countries, often as a result of industrial development activities.
(ii) There is indication that children’s health is being affected as a result of these exposures.
(iii) Limited studies in the peer-reviewed literature document the extent of metals exposure and health consequences in Emerging Market countries.
(iv) Country-specific reference values are largely unavailable in Emerging Market countries making interpretation of exposure assessment difficult.
(v) There is incomplete knowledge of the public health impact of exposure to As, Cd, Pb, and Hg in Emerging Market countries.


(i) Authors recommend further study and publication on pediatric metal exposures and interventions to decrease exposures in Emerging Market countries.
(ii) Authors recommend development of country-specific reference values for these metals.
(iii) Authors recommend ensuring local dissemination of study findings and translation into action-based public health interventions with followup to evaluate the effects of interventions.
(iv) Authors recommend continuing education for healthcare providers and public health professionals about exposure routes and prevention strategies.