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International Journal of Pediatrics
Volume 2017, Article ID 4280583, 8 pages
Research Article

Prevalence of Middle Ear Infections and Associated Risk Factors in Children under 5 Years in Gasabo District of Kigali City, Rwanda

1ENT Department, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Rwanda, Kigali, Rwanda
2Department of Health Policy, Planning and Management, Makerere University School of Public Health, Kampala, Uganda
3Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
4Head and Neck Surgery & Communication Sciences, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA
5Global Health Division, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden

Correspondence should be addressed to Kaitesi Batamuliza Mukara; moc.liamtoh@tabiak

Received 31 July 2017; Revised 11 October 2017; Accepted 26 October 2017; Published 3 December 2017

Academic Editor: Alessandro Mussa

Copyright © 2017 Kaitesi Batamuliza Mukara et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Middle ear infections are common in children, and delay in diagnosis and treatment may result in complications such as delays in speech and language development and deafness. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and care seeking behaviour for middle ear infections in children under five years in Kigali city. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 810 children aged 6–59 months in Gasabo district of Kigali city, Rwanda. The prevalence of middle ear infections was 5.8%, of whom 4% had chronic suppurative otitis media. A child was less likely to develop middle ear infections if they lived in an urban setting (OR = 0.52, 95% CI: 0.285–0.958) but more likely to develop middle ear infections if exposed to household smoke (OR = 2.54, 95% CI: 1.18–5.46). Parents were unlikely to know that their child had an ear infection (OR: 0.15, 95% CI: 0.06–0.34). Middle ear infection remains a public health problem in Rwanda but many parents were not aware of its presence in the affected children. There is a need to raise awareness of parents about ear infection and to promote early care seeking from qualified health workers.