Table of Contents
International Journal of Peptides
Volume 2010 (2010), Article ID 305192, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2010/305192
Review Article

Ghrelin, Des-Acyl Ghrelin, and Obestatin: Regulatory Roles on the Gastrointestinal Motility

1Department of Anatomy, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Sapporo 060-8556, Japan
2Department of Behavioral Medicine, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima 890-8520, Japan
3Research Institute, Taiko Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Osaka 564-0032, Japan
4Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University School of Medicine, Taipei 112, Taiwan
5Department of Bioorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokuriku University, Kanazawa 920-1181, Japan

Received 14 October 2009; Accepted 22 December 2009

Academic Editor: Serguei Fetissov

Copyright © 2010 Mineko Fujimiya et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Ghrelin, des-acyl ghrelin, and obestatin are derived from a common prohormone, preproghrelin by posttranslational processing, originating from endocrine cells in the stomach. To examine the regulatory roles of these peptides, we applied the manometric measurement of gastrointestinal motility in freely moving conscious rat or mouse model. Ghrelin exerts stimulatory effects on the motility of antrum and duodenum in both fed and fasted state of animals. Des-acyl ghrelin exerts inhibitory effects on the motility of antrum but not on the motility of duodenum in the fasted state of animals. Obestatin exerts inhibitory effects on the motility of antrum and duodenum in the fed state but not in the fasted state of animals. NPY Y2 and Y4 receptors in the brain may mediate the action of ghrelin, CRF type 2 receptor in the brain may mediate the action of des-acyl ghrelin, whereas CRF type 1 and type 2 receptors in the brain may mediate the action of obestatin. Vagal afferent pathways might be involved in the action of ghrelin, but not involved in the action of des-acyl ghrelin, whereas vagal afferent pathways might be partially involved in the action of obestatin.