Table of Contents
International Journal of Plant Genomics
Volume 2009, Article ID 198680, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2009/198680
Review Article

Virus-Induced Gene Silencing, a Post Transcriptional Gene Silencing Method

1Biological Sciences & Bioengineering Program, Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Sabanci University, Orhanli, Tuzla, Turkey
2Kocaeli University, Arslanbey MYO, Izmit, Turkey

Received 1 December 2008; Accepted 30 March 2009

Academic Editor: Chunji Liu

Copyright © 2009 Turgay Unver and Hikmet Budak. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. N. Romano and G. Macino, “Quelling: transient inactivation of gene expression in Neurospora crassa by transformation with homologous sequences,” Molecular Microbiology, vol. 6, no. 22, pp. 3343–3353, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  2. A. Fire, S. Xu, M. K. Montgomery, S. A. Kostas, S. E. Driver, and C. C. Mello, “Potent and specific genetic interference by double-stranded RNA in caenorhabditis elegans,” Nature, vol. 391, no. 6669, pp. 806–811, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  3. D. C. Baulcombe, “Fast forward genetics based on virus-induced gene silencing,” Current Opinion in Plant Biology, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 109–113, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  4. S. P. Dinesh-Kumar, R. Anandalakshmi, R. Marathe, M. Schiff, and Y. Liu, “Virus-induced gene silencing,” Methods in Molecular Biology, vol. 236, pp. 287–294, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  5. A. van Kammen, “Virus-induced gene silencing in infected and transgenic plants,” Trends in Plant Science, vol. 2, no. 11, pp. 409–411, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  6. O. Voinnet, “RNA silencing as a plant immune system against viruses,” Trends in Genetics, vol. 17, no. 8, pp. 449–459, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  7. U. Klahre, P. Crété, S. A. Leuenberger, V. A. Iglesias, and F. Meins, Jr., “High molecular weight RNAs and small interfering RNAs induce systemic posttranscriptional gene silencing in plants,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 99, no. 18, pp. 11981–11986, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  8. D. P. Bartel, “MicroRNAs: genomics, biogenesis, mechanism, and function,” Cell, vol. 116, no. 2, pp. 281–297, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  9. T. Dalmay, A. Hamilton, S. Rudd, S. Angell, and D. C. Baulcombe, “An RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene in Arabidopsis is required for posttranscriptional gene silencing mediated by a transgene but not by a virus,” Cell, vol. 101, no. 5, pp. 543–553, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  10. C. F. Chuang and E. M. Meyerowitz, “Specific and heritable genetic interference by double-stranded RNA in Arabidopsis thaliana,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 97, no. 9, pp. 4985–4990, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  11. M. H. Kumagai, J. Donson, G. Della-Cioppa, D. Harvey, K. Hanley, and L. K. Grill, “Cytoplasmic inhibition of carotenoid biosynthesis with virus-derived RNA,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 92, no. 5, pp. 1679–1683, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  12. C. L. Thomas, L. Jones, D. C. Baulcombe, and A. J. Maule, “Size constraints for targeting post-transcriptional gene silencing and for RNA-directed methylation in Nicotiana benthamiana using a potato virus X vector,” The Plant Journal, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 417–425, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  13. S. K. Ekengren, Y. Liu, M. Schiff, S. P. Dinesh-Kumar, and G. B. Martin, “Two MARK cascades, NPR1, and TGA transcription factors play a role in Pto-mediated disease resistance in tomato,” The Plant Journal, vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 905–917, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  14. Y. Liu, M. Schiff, R. Marathe, and S. P. Dinesh-Kumar, “Tobacco Rar1, EDS1 and NPR1/NIM1 like genes are required for N-mediated resistance to tobacco mosaic virus,” The Plant Journal, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 415–429, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  15. Y. Liu, M. Schiff, and S. P. Dinesh-Kumar, “Virus-induced gene silencing in tomato,” The Plant Journal, vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 777–786, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  16. F. Ratcliff, A. M. Martín-Hernández, and D. C. Baulcombe, “Tobacco rattle virus as a vector for analysis of gene function by silencing,” The Plant Journal, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 237–245, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  17. T. M. Burch-Smith, M. Schiff, Y. Liu, and S. P. Dinesh-Kumar, “Efficient virus-induced gene silencing in Arabidopsis,” Plant Physiology, vol. 142, no. 1, pp. 21–27, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  18. S. Pflieger, S. Blanchet, L. Camborde et al., “Efficient virus-induced gene silencing in Arabidopsis using a ‘one-step’ TYMV-derived vector,” The Plant Journal, vol. 56, no. 4, pp. 678–690, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  19. R. Lu, I. Malcuit, P. Moffett et al., “High throughput virus-induced gene silencing implicates heat shock protein 90 in plant disease resistance,” The EMBO Journal, vol. 22, no. 21, pp. 5690–5699, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  20. T. M. Burch-Smith, J. C. Anderson, G. B. Martin, and S. P. Dinesh-Kumar, “Applications and advantages of virus-induced gene silencing for gene function studies in plants,” The Plant Journal, vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 734–746, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  21. O. Faivre-Rampant, E. M. Gilroy, K. Hrubikova et al., “Potato virus X-induced gene silencing in leaves and tubers of potato,” Plant Physiology, vol. 134, no. 4, pp. 1308–1316, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  22. M. T. Ruiz, O. Voinnet, and D. C. Baulcombe, “Initiation and maintenance of virus-induced gene silencing,” The Plant Cell, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 937–946, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  23. L. C. Hileman, S. Drea, G. de Martino, A. Litt, and V. F. Irish, “Virus-induced gene silencing is an effective tool for assaying gene function in the basal eudicot species Papaver somniferum (opium poppy),” The Plant Journal, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 334–341, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  24. B. Gould and E. M. Kramer, “Virus-induced gene silencing as a tool for functional analyses in the emerging model plant Aquilegia (columbine, Ranunculaceae),” The Plant Methods, vol. 3, no. 1, article 6, pp. 1–12, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  25. E. Chung, E. Seong, Y. C. Kim et al., “A method of high frequency virus-induced gene silencing in chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Bukang),” Molecules and Cells, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 377–380, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  26. S. Holzberg, P. Brosio, C. Gross, and G. P. Pogue, “Barley stripe mosaic virus-induced gene silencing in a monocot plant,” The Plant Journal, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 315–327, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  27. S. R. Scofield, L. Huang, A. S. Brandt, and B. S. Gill, “Development of a virus-induced gene-silencing system for hexaploid wheat and its use in functional analysis of the Lr21-mediated leaf rust resistance pathway,” Plant Physiology, vol. 138, no. 4, pp. 2165–2173, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  28. C. Zhang and S. A. Ghabrial, “Development of Bean pod mottle virus-based vectors for stable protein expression and sequence-specific virus-induced gene silencing in soybean,” Virology, vol. 344, no. 2, pp. 401–411, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  29. G. D. Constantin, B. N. Krath, S. A. MacFarlane, M. Nicolaisen, E. Johansen, and O. S. Lund, “Virus-induced gene silencing as a tool for functional genomics in a legume species,” The Plant Journal, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 622–631, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  30. M. Grønlund, G. Constantin, E. Piednoir, J. Kovacev, I. E. Johansen, and O. S. Lund, “Virus-induced gene silencing in Medicago truncatula and Lathyrus odorata,” Virus Research, vol. 135, no. 2, pp. 345–349, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  31. V. Gosselé, I. Faché, F. Meulewaeter, M. Cornelissen, and M. Metzlaff, “SVISS—a novel transient gene silencing system for gene function discovery and validation in tobacco plants,” The Plant Journal, vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 859–866, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  32. M. Naylor, J. Reeves, J. I. Cooper, M.-L. Edwards, and H. Wang, “Construction and properties of a gene-silencing vector based on Poplar mosaic virus (genus Carlavirus),” Journal of Virological Methods, vol. 124, no. 1-2, pp. 27–36, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  33. X. S. Ding, W. L. Schneider, S. R. Chaluvadi, M. A. Rouf Mian, and R. S. Nelson, “Characterization of a Brome mosaic virus strain and its use as a vector for gene silencing in monocotyledonous hosts,” Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions, vol. 19, no. 11, pp. 1229–1239, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  34. C. Peele, C. V. Jordan, N. Muangsan et al., “Silencing of a meristematic gene using geminivirus-derived vectors,” The Plant Journal, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 357–366, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  35. H. Hou and W. Qiu, “A novel co-delivery system consisting of a Tomato bushy stunt virus and a defective interfering RNA for studying gene silencing,” Journal of Virological Methods, vol. 111, no. 1, pp. 37–42, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  36. M. A. Turnage, N. Muangsan, C. G. Peele, and D. Robertson, “Geminivirus-based vectors for gene silencing in Arabidopsis,” The Plant Journal, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 107–114, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  37. I. B. F. Fofana, A. Sangaré, R. Collier, C. Taylor, and C. M. Fauquet, “A geminivirus-induced gene silencing system for gene function validation in cassava,” Plant Molecular Biology, vol. 56, no. 4, pp. 613–624, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  38. X. Tao and X. Zhou, “A modified viral satellite DNA that suppresses gene expression in plants,” The Plant Journal, vol. 38, no. 5, pp. 850–860, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  39. S. Kjemtrup, K. S. Sampson, C. G. Peele et al., “Gene silencing from plant DNA carried by a geminivirus,” The Plant Journal, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 91–100, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  40. R. Lu, A. M. Malcuit, J. R. Martín-Hernández, I. Malcuit, and D. C. Baulcombe, “Virus-induced gene silencing in plants,” Methods, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 296–303, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  41. D. Martínez-Herrera, J. Romero, J. M. Martínez-Zapater, and F. Ponz, “Suitability of Arabidopsis thaliana as a system for the study of plant-virus interactions,” Fitopatologia, vol. 29, pp. 132–136, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  42. A. Jakubiec, G. Drugeon, L. Camborde, and I. Jupin, “Proteolytic processing of turnip yellow mosaic virus replication proteins and functional impact on infectivity,” Journal of Virology, vol. 81, no. 20, pp. 11402–11412, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  43. T. Unver, Detection and characterization of plant genes involved ın various biotic and abiotic stress conditions using DDRT-PCR and isolation of interacting proteins, Ph.D. thesis, Middle East Technical University, Institute of Natural and Applied Sciences, Ankara, Turkey, 2008.
  44. G. P. Pogue, J. A. Lindbo, W. O. Dawson, and T. H. Turpen, Tobamovirus Transient Expression Vectors: Tools for Plant Biology and High- Level Expression of Foreign Proteins in Plants, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1998.
  45. D. Q. Fu, B. Z. Zhu, H. L. Zhu, W. B. Jiang, and Y. B. Luo, “Virus-induced gene silencing in tomato fruit,” The Plant Journal, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 299–308, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  46. D. Orzaez, S. Mirabel, W. H. Wieland, and A. Granell, “Agroinjection of tomato fruits. A tool for rapid functional analysis of transgenes directly in fruit,” Plant Physiology, vol. 140, no. 1, pp. 3–11, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  47. C. Lacomme, K. Hrubikova, and I. Hein, “Enhancement of virus-induced gene silencing through viral-based production of inverted-repeats,” The Plant Journal, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 543–553, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar