Bisphenyl-Polymer/Carbon-Fiber-Reinforced Composite Compared to Titanium Alloy Bone Implant
Histological high-magnification imaging with all scale bars approximately 50 μm. (a) Lateral section of the titanium-6-4 alloy image from Figure 4(a) on distal reveals some implant/bone particle integration using toluidine blue stain. (b) Lateral section of a bisphenyl-polymer/carbon-fiber implant exhibits a typical osseointegrated interface with a sophisticated pore-architecture remodeling that may have contained more in vivo osteoid using toluidine blue. (c) Lateral section of a bisphenyl-polymer/carbon-fiber implant presents a fractured composite surface that appears to stimulate bone directly onto an area that represents 2 multiple fiber-fracture ends with toluidine blue. (d) Lateral section of a bisphenyl-polymer/carbon-fiber implant shows an osseointegrating interface with multiple fractured fiber-fragment pieces debonded from the composite and encased in bone with toluidine blue. (e) Horizontal section of a bisphenyl-polymer/carbon-fiber composite implant not included in the statistical analysis expresses calcifications as intense bone integration into the implant surrounding individual carbon fibers of approximate 7 μm diameter after removing portions of the polymer matrix utilizing Sanderson’s stain. The surface defect is approximately 200 μm deeply. (f) Horizontal section of a bisphenyl-polymer/carbon-fiber composite implant also not included in the statistical analysis shows fibers being pulled away from the implant at the bone interface that would necessarily entail polymer degradation or softening, using Sanderson’s stain.
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