- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Annual Issues ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Articles in Press ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
International Journal of Polymer Science
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 192865, 9 pages
Time Effects on Morphology and Bonding Ability in Mercerized Natural Fibers for Composite Reinforcement
1Tuskegee Center for Advanced Materials, Tuskegee University, Tuskegee, AL 36088, USA
2Universal Technologies Corporation (UTC), 1270 N. Fairfield Rd., Dayton, OH 45432, USA
3Materials & Manufacturing Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, WPAFB 2941 Hobson Way, Dyton, OH 45433, USA
4Department of Fiber Science and Apparel Design, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
Received 29 March 2011; Accepted 3 May 2011
Academic Editor: Susheel Kalia
Copyright © 2011 T. Williams et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- M. Pervaiz and M. M. Sain, “Sheet-molded polyolefin natural fiber composites for automotive applications,” Macromolecular Materials and Engineering, vol. 288, no. 7, pp. 553–557, 2003.
- W. Liu, A. K. Mohanty, L. T. Drzal, P. Askeland, and M. Misra, “Effects of alkali treatment on the structure, morphology and thermal properties of native grass fibers as reinforcements for polymer matrix composites,” Journal of Materials Science, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 1051–1054, 2004.
- A. Mohanty, M. Misra, and L. Drzal, Natural Fibers, Biopolymers, and Biocomposites, Taylor & Francis Group LLC, Boca Raton, Fla, USA, 2005.
- A. M. M. Edeerozey, H. M. Akil, A. B. Azhar, and M. I. Z. Ariffin, “Chemical modification of kenaf fibers,” Materials Letters, vol. 61, no. 10, pp. 2023–2025, 2007.
- F. Wallenberger and N. Weston, Natural Fibers, Plastics and Composites, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2004.
- S. H. Aziz and M. P. Ansell, “The effect of alkalization and fibre alignment on the mechanical and thermal properties of kenaf and hemp bast fibre composites—part 1—polyester resin matrix,” Composites Science and Technology, vol. 64, no. 9, pp. 1219–1230, 2004.
- B. C. Mitra, R. K. Basak, and M. Sarkar, “Studies on jute-reinforced composites, its limitations, and some solutions through chemical modifications of fibers,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 67, no. 6, pp. 1093–1100, 1998.
- N. Sgriccia, M. C. Hawley, and M. Misra, “Characterization of natural fiber surfaces and natural fiber composites,” Composites Part A, vol. 39, no. 10, pp. 1632–1637, 2008.
- K. Joseph, S. Thomas, and C. Pavithran, “Effect of chemical treatment on the tensile properties of short sisal fibre-reinforced polyethylene composites,” Polymer, vol. 37, no. 23, pp. 5139–5149, 1996.
- B. Xiao, X. F. Sun, and R. Sun, “Chemical, structural, and thermal characterizations of alkali-soluble lignins and hemicelluloses, and cellulose from maize stems, rye straw, and rice straw,” Polymer Degradation and Stability, vol. 74, no. 2, pp. 307–319, 2001.
- N. Suizu, T. Uno, K. Goda, and J. Ohgi, “Tensile and impact properties of fully green composites reinforced with mercerized ramie fibers,” Journal of Materials Science, vol. 44, no. 10, pp. 2477–2482, 2009.
- A. Gomes, T. Matsuo, K. Goda, and J. Ohgi, “Development and effect of alkali treatment on tensile properties of curaua fiber green composites,” Composites Part A, vol. 38, no. 8, pp. 1811–1820, 2007.
- W. Zhang, S. Okubayashi, and T. Bechtold, “Fibrillation tendency of cellulosic fibers—part 2: effects of temperature,” Cellulose, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 275–279, 2005.
- J. Gassan and A. K. Bledzki, “Alkali treatment of jute fibers: relationship between structure and mechanical properties,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 71, no. 4, pp. 623–629, 1999.
- D. Ray and B. K. Sarkar, “Characterization of alkali treated jute fibres for physical and mechanical properties,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 80, no. 7, pp. 1013–1020, 2001.
- W. Liu, A. K. Mohanty, P. Askeland, L. T. Drzal, and M. Misra, “Influence of fiber surface treatment on properties of Indian grass fiber reinforced soy protein based biocomposites,” Polymer, vol. 45, no. 22, pp. 7589–7596, 2004.
- D. Ray, B. K. Sarkar, A. K. Rana, and N. R. Bose, “Mechanical properties of vinylester resin matrix composites reinforced with alkali-treated jute fibres,” Composites Part A, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 119–127, 2001.
- S. Keshk, W. Suwinarti, and K. Sameshima, “Physicochemical characterization of different treatment sequences on kenaf bast fiber,” Carbohydrate Polymers, vol. 65, no. 2, pp. 202–206, 2006.
- M. Akerholm, B. Hinterstoisser, and L. Salmén, “Characterization of the crystalline structure of cellulose using static and dynamic FT-IR spectroscopy,” Carbohydrate Research, vol. 339, no. 3, pp. 569–578, 2004.
- G. Socrates, Infrared and Raman Characteristic Group Frequencies: Tables and Charts, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA, 3rd edition, 2001.
- K. H. Song and S. K. Obendorf, “Chemical and biological retting of kenaf fibers,” Textile Research Journal, vol. 76, no. 10, pp. 751–756, 2006.
- R. Sun, J. M. Lawther, and W. B. Banks, “Influence of alkaline pre-treatments on the cell wall components of wheat straw,” Industrial Crops and Products, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 127–145, 1995.
- R. C. Sun, J. Tomkinson, P. L. Ma, and S. F. Liang, “Comparative study of hemicelluloses from rice straw by alkali and hydrogen peroxide treatments,” Carbohydrate Polymers, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 111–122, 2000.
- N. Reddy and Y. Yang, “Structure and properties of high quality natural cellulose fibers from cornstalks,” Polymer, vol. 46, no. 15, pp. 5494–5500, 2005.
- C. J. Garvey, I. H. Parker, and G. P. Simon, “On the interpretation of X-ray diffraction powder patterns in terms of the nanostructure of cellulose I fibres,” Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics, vol. 206, no. 15, pp. 1568–1575, 2005.
- A. Guinier, X-Ray Diffraction in Crystals, Imperfect Crystals, and Amorphous Bodies, Dover Publications, New York, NY, USA, 1963.