Table 1: Foaming formulation of rigid soybean oil-based polyurethane foams (SBO PU foams) modified with fillers.

IngredientsConcentration, phpa
B-side materialsControl PU foamsSBO PU foams

VORANOL 490 (Petroleum-based polyol)10085
Soybean oil-based polyol015
Dimethylcyclohexylamine (gelling catalyst)0.840.84
Pentamethyldiethylenetriamine (blowing catalyst)1.261.26
Dabco DC 5357 (surfactant)2.52.5
Distilled Water (blowing agent)3.03.0
Filler (glass microsphere or nanoclay)01,3,5,7

A-side material
Isocyanate indexb of PAPI 27110110

aThe concentration of all ingredients are expressed in parts per hundred part of polyol, which conventionally dictates that the sum of all polyols adds up to 100 parts.
bThe amount of isocyanate used relative to the theoretical equivalent amount. The isocyanate index is the ratio of the actual amount of isocyanate used over theoretical amount of isocyanate required times 100.