Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Polymer Science
Volume 2015, Article ID 124524, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/124524
Review Article

Chemical Recycling of PET Wastes with Different Catalysts

1Department of Polymer Engineering, Shiraz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shiraz 71987 74731, Iran
2Department of Nanobiotechnology, Protein Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University, G. C. Velenjak, Tehran 19839 4716, Iran
3Department of Chemistry, Darab Branch, Islamic Azad University, Darab, Iran
4Young Researchers and Elite Club, Shiraz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shiraz 71987 74731, Iran

Received 18 June 2015; Revised 15 September 2015; Accepted 16 September 2015

Academic Editor: Yulin Deng

Copyright © 2015 Mohammad Khoonkari et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. F. Welle, “Twenty years of PET bottle to bottle recycling—an overview,” Resources, Conservation and Recycling, vol. 55, no. 11, pp. 865–875, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. L. Bartolome, M. Imran, B. G. Cho, W. A. Al-Masry, and D. H. Kim, “Recent developments in the chemical recycling of PET,” in Material Recycling—Trends and Perspectives, D. Achilias, Ed., InTech, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  3. V. Sinha, M. R. Patel, and J. V. Patel, “PET waste management by chemical recycling: a review,” Journal of Polymers and the Environment, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 8–25, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. PACIA, “National Plastics Recycling Survey,” Plastics and Chemicals Industries Association, 2002, http://www.pacia.org.au/.
  5. C. Lorenzetti, P. Manaresi, C. Berti, and G. Barbiroli, “Chemical recovery of useful chemicals from polyester (PET) waste for resource conservation: a survey of state of the art,” Journal of Polymers and the Environment, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 89–101, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. A. Ghaderian, A. H. Haghighi, F. A. Taromi, Z. Abdeen, A. Boroomand, and S. M.-R. Taheri, “Characterization of rigid polyurethane foam prepared from recycling of PET waste,” Periodica Polytechnica Chemical Engineering, vol. 59, no. 4, pp. 296–305, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  7. M. Y. Abdelaal, T. R. Sobahi, and M. S. I. Makki, “Chemical transformation of pet waste through glycolysis,” Construction and Building Materials, vol. 25, no. 8, pp. 3267–3271, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. R. López-Fonseca, I. Duque-Ingunza, B. de Rivas, S. Arnaiz, and J. I. Gutiérrez-Ortiz, “Chemical recycling of post-consumer PET wastes by glycolysis in the presence of metal salts,” Polymer Degradation and Stability, vol. 95, no. 6, pp. 1022–1028, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. H. Wang, Y. Liu, Z. Li, X. Zhang, S. Zhang, and Y. Zhang, “Glycolysis of poly(ethylene terephthalate) catalyzed by ionic liquids,” European Polymer Journal, vol. 45, no. 5, pp. 1535–1544, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. H. Wang, Z. Li, Y. Liu, X. Zhang, and S. Zhang, “Degradation of poly(ethylene terephthalate) using ionic liquids,” Green Chemistry, vol. 11, no. 10, pp. 1568–1575, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. M. Imran, D. H. Kim, W. A. Al-Masry et al., “Manganese-, cobalt-, and zinc-based mixed-oxide spinels as novel catalysts for the chemical recycling of poly(ethylene terephthalate) via glycolysis,” Polymer Degradation and Stability, vol. 98, no. 4, pp. 904–915, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. R. López-Fonseca, I. Duque-Ingunza, B. de Rivas, L. Flores-Giraldo, and J. I. Gutiérrez-Ortiz, “Kinetics of catalytic glycolysis of PET wastes with sodium carbonate,” Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 168, no. 1, pp. 312–320, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. F. A. El-Toufaili, Catalytic and mechanistic studies of polyethylene terephthalate synthesis [Ph.D. dissertation], Technical University, Berlin, Germany, 2006.
  14. V. Sharma, P. Parashar, P. Srivastava, S. Kumar, D. D. Agarwal, and N. Richharia, “Recycling of waste PET-bottles using dimethyl sulfoxide and hydrotalcite catalyst,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 129, no. 3, pp. 1513–1519, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. H. Xue, F. Wang, G. Li, P. Liu, Y. Bai, and K. Wang, “Synthesis method and its influence factors of hydrotalcite-like compounds,” Advanced Materials Research, vol. 690–693, pp. 351–354, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  16. P. Parashar, P. K. Bohre, D. D. Agarwal, and N. Richhariya, “Recycling of polystyrene using hydrotalcite as degradation catalyst,” International Journal of Modern Engineering & Management Research, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 53–56, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  17. P. A. Schulte, L. T. McKernan, D. S. Heidel et al., “Occupational safety and health, green chemistry, and sustainability: a review of areas of convergence,” Environmental Health, vol. 12, article 31, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  18. G. Fischer-Colbrie, S. Heumann, S. Liebminger, E. Almansa, A. Cavaco-Paulo, and G. M. Guebitz, “New enzymes with potential for PET surface modification,” Biocatalysis and Biotransformation, vol. 22, no. 5-6, pp. 341–346, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. Å. M. Ronkvist, W. Xie, W. Lu, and R. A. Gross, “Cutinase-catalyzed hydrolysis of poly (ethylene terephthalate),” Macromolecules, vol. 42, no. 14, pp. 5128–5138, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. J. Then, R. Wei, T. Oeser et al., “Ca2+ and Mg2+ binding site engineering increases the degradation of polyethylene terephthalate films by polyester hydrolases from Thermobifida fusca,” Biotechnology Journal, vol. 10, pp. 592–598, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. A. Eberl, S. Heumann, T. Brückner et al., “Enzymatic surface hydrolysis of poly(ethylene terephthalate) and bis(benzoyloxyethyl) terephthalate by lipase and cutinase in the presence of surface active molecules,” Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 143, no. 3, pp. 207–212, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. Y. Tokiwa, B. P. Calabia, C. U. Ugwu, and S. Aiba, “Biodegradability of plastics,” International Journal of Molecular Sciences, vol. 10, no. 9, pp. 3722–3742, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. T. Oeser, R. Wei, T. Baumgarten, S. Billig, C. Föllner, and W. Zimmermann, “High level expression of a hydrophobic poly(ethylene terephthalate)-hydrolyzing carboxylesterase from Thermobifida fusca KW3 in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3),” Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 146, no. 3, pp. 100–104, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. M. A. M. E. Vertommen, V. A. Nierstrasz, M. V. D. Veer, and M. M. C. G. Warmoeskerken, “Enzymatic surface modification of poly(ethylene terephthalate),” Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 120, no. 4, pp. 376–386, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. Y. Tokiwa and T. Suzuki, “Hydrolysis of polyesters by lipases,” Nature, vol. 270, no. 5632, pp. 76–78, 1977. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. C. Silva, S. Da, N. Silva et al., “Engineered Thermobifida fusca cutinase with increased activity on polyester substrates,” Biotechnology Journal, vol. 6, no. 10, pp. 1230–1239, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. E. Marten, R.-J. Müller, and W.-D. Deckwer, “Studies on the enzymatic hydrolysis of polyesters. II. Aliphatic–aromatic copolyesters,” Polymer Degradation and Stability, vol. 88, no. 3, pp. 371–381, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. D. Ribitsch, A. O. Yebra, S. Zitzenbacher et al., “Fusion of binding domains to Thermobifida cellulosilytica cutinase to tune sorption characteristics and enhancing PET hydrolysis,” Biomacromolecules, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 1769–1776, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. D. Ribitsch, E. Herrero Acero, A. Przylucka et al., “Enhanced cutinase-catalyzed hydrolysis of polyethylene terephthalate by covalent fusion to hydrophobins,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 81, no. 11, pp. 3586–3592, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  30. F.-A. El-Toufaili, G. Feix, and K.-H. Reichert, “Mechanistic investigations of antimony-catalyzed polycondensation in the synthesis of poly(ethylene terephthalate),” Journal of Polymer Science, Part A: Polymer Chemistry, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 1049–1059, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. K. Hamad, M. Kaseem, and F. Deri, “Recycling of waste from polymer materials: an overview of the recent works,” Polymer Degradation and Stability, vol. 98, no. 12, pp. 2801–2812, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. G. Cüçlü, A. Kaşgöz, S. Özbudak, S. Özgümüş, and M. Orbay, “Glycolysis of poly(ethylene terephthalate) wastes in xylene,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 69, no. 12, pp. 2311–2319, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. N. E. Ikladious, “Recycling of poly(ethylene terephthalate): identification of glycolysis products,” Journal of Elastomers & Plastics, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 140–151, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus