Table 3: Mechanical properties of natural fibre [44, 45].

FibreDensity (g/cm3)Elongation (%)Tensile strength (MPa)Moisture absorptionYoung’s modulus (GPa)

Cotton1.5–1.63.0–10.0287–5978–255.5–12.6
Jute1.3–1.461.5–1.8393–8001210–30
Flax1.4–1.51.2–3.2345–1500727.6–80
Hemp1.481.6550–900870
Ramie1.52.0–3.8220–93812–1744–128
Sisal1.33–1.52.0–14400–700119.0–38.0
Coir1.215.0–30.0175–220104.0–6.0
Softwood kraft1.5100040.0
E-glass2.52.5–3.02000–350070.0
S-glass2.52.8457086.0
Aramide (normal)1.43.3–3.73000–315063.0–67.0
Carbon (standard)1.41.4–1.84000230.0–40.0