Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Polymer Science
Volume 2016, Article ID 1219469, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/1219469
Research Article

Magnetically Triggered Monodispersed Nanocomposite Fabricated by Microfluidic Approach for Drug Delivery

1Computer, Electrical and Mathematical Sciences & Engineering Division, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 4700, Thuwal 23955-6900, Saudi Arabia
2Physical Sciences and Engineering Division, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal 23955-6900, Saudi Arabia
3School of Engineering, University of British Columbia, 3333 University Way, Kelowna, BC, Canada V1V 1V7

Received 19 February 2016; Revised 24 April 2016; Accepted 4 May 2016

Academic Editor: Kai Chen

Copyright © 2016 O. Yassine et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. Y. Hirokawa and T. Tanaka, “Volume phase transition in a nonionic gel,” The Journal of Chemical Physics, vol. 81, no. 12, pp. 6379–6380, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. B. R. Saunders and B. Vincent, “Microgel particles as model colloids: theory, properties and applications,” Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, vol. 80, no. 1, pp. 1–25, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. K. Suwa, K. Morishita, A. Kishida, and M. Akashi, “Synthesis and functionalities of poly(N-vinylalkylamide). V. Control of a lower critical solution temperature of poly(N-Vinylalkylamide),” Journal of Polymer Science, Part A: Polymer Chemistry, vol. 35, no. 15, pp. 3087–3094, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. C.-K. Chee, B. J. Hunt, S. Rimmer, R. Rutkaite, I. Soutar, and L. Swanson, “Manipulating the thermoresponsive behaviour of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) 3. on the conformational behaviour of N-isopropylacrylamide graft copolymers,” Soft Matter, vol. 5, no. 19, pp. 3701–3712, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. S.-K. Ahn, R. M. Kasi, S.-C. Kim, N. Sharma, and Y. X. Zhou, “Stimuli-responsive polymer gels,” Soft Matter, vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 1151–1157, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. B. R. Saunders, H. M. Crowther, and B. Vincent, “Poly[(methyl methacrylate)-co-(methacrylic acid)] microgel particles: swelling control using pH, cononsolvency, and osmotic deswelling,” Macromolecules, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 482–487, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. S. Dai, P. Ravi, and K. C. Tam, “pH-responsive polymers: synthesis, properties and applications,” Soft Matter, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 435–449, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. L. Hu and M. J. Serpe, “The influence of deposition solution ph and ionic strength on the quality of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) microgel-based thin films and etalons,” ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, vol. 5, no. 22, pp. 11977–11983, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. A. Garcia, M. Marquez, T. Cai et al., “Photo-, thermally, and pH-responsive microgels,” Langmuir, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 224–229, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. Z. Zhu, E. Senses, P. Akcora, and S. A. Sukhishvili, “Programmable light-controlled shape changes in layered polymer nanocomposites,” ACS Nano, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 3152–3162, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. A. Fernández-Nieves, A. Fernández-Barbero, F. J. de las Nieves, and B. Vincent, “Motion of microgel particles under an external electric field,” Journal of Physics Condensed Matter, vol. 12, no. 15, pp. 3605–3614, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. T. Hoare and R. Pelton, “Engineering glucose swelling responses in poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-based microgels,” Macromolecules, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 670–678, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. R. E. Rivero, M. A. Molina, C. R. Rivarola, and C. A. Barbero, “Pressure and microwave sensors/actuators based on smart hydrogel/conductive polymer nanocomposite,” Sensors and Actuators, B: Chemical, vol. 190, pp. 270–278, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. A. Pich, J. Hain, Y. Lu, V. Boyko, Y. Prots, and H.-J. Adler, “Hybrid microgels with ZnS inclusions,” Macromolecules, vol. 38, no. 15, pp. 6610–6619, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. R. F. Donnelly, M. T. C. McCrudden, A. Z. Alkilani et al., “Hydrogel-forming microneedles prepared from ‘super swelling’ polymers combined with lyophilised wafers for transdermal drug delivery,” PLoS ONE, vol. 9, no. 10, Article ID e111547, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. K. Nagase, J. Kobayashi, and T. Okano, “Temperature-responsive intelligent interfaces for biomolecular separation and cell sheet engineering,” Journal of The Royal Society Interface, vol. 6, supplement 3, p. S293, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  17. L. Dong, A. K. Agarwal, D. J. Beebe, and H. R. Jiang, “Adaptive liquid microlenses activated by stimuli-responsive hydrogels,” Nature, vol. 442, no. 7102, pp. 551–554, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. R. H. Pelton and P. Chibante, “Preparation of aqueous latices with N-isopropylacrylamide,” Colloids and Surfaces, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 247–256, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. R. X. Liu, M. Fraylich, and B. R. Saunders, “Thermoresponsive copolymers: from fundamental studies to applications,” Colloid and Polymer Science, vol. 287, no. 6, pp. 627–643, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. R. Regmi, S. R. Bhattarai, C. Sudakar et al., “Hyperthermia controlled rapid drug release from thermosensitive magnetic microgels,” Journal of Materials Chemistry, vol. 20, no. 29, pp. 6158–6163, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. F. Sauzedde, A. Elaïssari, and C. Pichot, “Hydrophilic magnetic polymer latexes. 2. Encapsulation of adsorbed iron oxide nanoparticles,” Colloid and Polymer Science, vol. 277, no. 11, pp. 1041–1050, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. X. B. Ding, Z. H. Sun, G. X. Wan, and Y. Y. Jiang, “Preparation of thermosensitive magnetic particles by dispersion polymerization,” Reactive and Functional Polymers, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 11–15, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  23. S. Purushotham and R. V. Ramanujan, “Thermoresponsive magnetic composite nanomaterials for multimodal cancer therapy,” Acta Biomaterialia, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 502–510, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. S. R. Deka, A. Quarta, R. Di Corato, A. Riedinger, R. Cingolani, and T. Pellegrino, “Magnetic nanobeads decorated by thermo-responsive PNIPAM shell as medical platforms for the efficient delivery of doxorubicin to tumour cells,” Nanoscale, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 619–629, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. S. Purushotham, P. E. J. Chang, H. Rumpel et al., “Thermoresponsive core-shell magnetic nanoparticles for combined modalities of cancer therapy,” Nanotechnology, vol. 20, no. 30, Article ID 305101, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. J.-W. Kim, A. S. Utada, A. Fernández-Nieves, Z. B. Hu, and D. A. Weitz, “Fabrication of monodisperse gel shells and functional microgels in microfluidic devices,” Angewandte Chemie—International Edition, vol. 46, no. 11, pp. 1819–1822, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. Y. L. Yu, M. J. Zhang, R. Xie et al., “Thermo-responsive monodisperse core-shell microspheres with PNIPAM core and biocompatible porous ethyl cellulose shell embedded with PNIPAM gates,” Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, vol. 376, no. 1, pp. 97–106, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  28. L. Y. Chu, J. W. Kim, R. K. Shah, and D. A. Weitz, “Monodisperse thermoresponsive microgels with tunable volume-phase transition kinetics,” Advanced Functional Materials, vol. 17, no. 17, pp. 3499–3504, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  29. S. Prakash and J. Yeom, Nanofluidics and Microfluidics, William Andrew Publishing, 2014.
  30. I. V. Zhigaltsev, Y. K. Tam, A. K. K. Leung, and P. R. Cullis, “Production of limit size nanoliposomal systems with potential utility as ultra-small drug delivery agents,” Journal of Liposome Research, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 96–102, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  31. J. S. Kochhar, S. Y. Chan, P. S. Ong, W. G. Lee, and L. Kang, “Microfluidic devices for drug discovery and analysis,” in Microfluidic Devices for Biomedical Applications, X.-J. J. Li and Y. Zhou, Eds., chapter 7, pp. 231–280, Woodhead, Cambridge, UK, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  32. C. P. Gooneratne, O. Yassine, I. Giouroudi, and J. Kosel, “Selective manipulation of superparamagnetic beads by a magnetic microchip,” IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, vol. 49, no. 7, pp. 3418–3421, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. L. Renaud, O. Yassine, P. Kleimann et al., “Electrophoresis poly(dimethylsiloxane)/glass chips with integrated active cooling for quantification of amino acids,” Experimental Heat Transfer, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 63–72, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. O. Yassine, P. Morin, O. Dispagne et al., “Electrophoresis PDMS/glass chips with continuous on-chip derivatization and analysis of amino acids using naphthalene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde as fluorogenic agent,” Analytica Chimica Acta, vol. 609, no. 2, pp. 215–222, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. K. Faure, M. Blas, O. Yassine et al., “Electrochromatography in poly(dimethyl)siloxane microchips using organic monolithic stationary phases,” Electrophoresis, vol. 28, no. 11, pp. 1668–1673, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. A. Alfadhel, B. Li, A. Zaher, O. Yassine, and J. Kosel, “A magnetic nanocomposite for biomimetic flow sensing,” Lab on a Chip—Miniaturisation for Chemistry and Biology, vol. 14, no. 22, pp. 4362–4369, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. O. Yassine, C. P. Gooneratne, D. Abu Smara et al., “Isolation of cells for selective treatment and analysis using a magnetic microfluidic chip,” Biomicrofluidics, vol. 8, no. 3, Article ID 034114, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. E. Q. Li, J. M. Zhang, and S. T. Thoroddsen, “Simple and inexpensive microfluidic devices for the generation of monodisperse multiple emulsions,” Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, vol. 24, no. 1, Article ID 015019, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  39. E. Vallés, D. Durando, I. Katime, E. Mendizábal, and J. E. Puig, “Equilibrium swelling and mechanical properties of hydrogels of acrylamide and itaconic acid or its esters,” Polymer Bulletin, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 109–114, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. P. F. Liu, J. Peng, J. Q. Li, and J. L. Wu, “Radiation crosslinking of CMC-Na at low dose and its application as substitute for hydrogel,” Radiation Physics and Chemistry, vol. 72, no. 5, pp. 635–638, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  41. B. Li, O. Yassine, and J. Kosel, “A surface acoustic wave passive and wireless sensor for magnetic fields, temperature, and humidity,” IEEE Sensors Journal, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 453–462, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. B. Li, O. Yassine, and J. Kosel, “Integrated passive and wireless sensor for magnetic fields, temperature and humidity,” in Proceedings of the 12th IEEE SENSORS, pp. 1–4, Baltimore, Md, USA, November 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. W. F. Brown Jr., “Thermal fluctuations of a single-domain particle,” Physical Review, vol. 130, no. 5, pp. 1677–1686, 1963. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  44. R. E. Rosensweig, “Heating magnetic fluid with alternating magnetic field,” Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, vol. 252, pp. 370–374, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  45. H. G. Schild, “Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide): experiment, theory and application,” Progress in Polymer Science, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 163–249, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  46. M. E. Nash, D. Healy, W. M. Carroll, C. Elvira, and Y. A. Rochev, “Cell and cell sheet recovery from pNIPAm coatings; motivation and history to present day approaches,” Journal of Materials Chemistry, vol. 22, no. 37, pp. 19376–19389, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. Y. W. Zhang, M. Jiang, J. X. Zhao, X. W. Ren, D. Y. Chen, and G. Z. Zhang, “A novel route to thermosensitive polymeric core-shell aggregates and hollow spheres in aqueous media,” Advanced Functional Materials, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 695–699, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  48. L.-W. Xia, R. Xie, X.-J. Ju, W. Wang, Q. M. Chen, and L.-Y. Chu, “Nano-structured smart hydrogels with rapid response and high elasticity,” Nature Communications, vol. 4, article 2226, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. S. Sershen and J. West, “Corrigendum to: “Implantable, polymeric systems for modulated drug delivery”: [Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews 54 (2002) 1225–1235],” Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, vol. 55, no. 3, p. 439, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar