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International Journal of Polymer Science
Volume 2016, Article ID 2062360, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/2062360
Review Article

Alginate Biosynthesis in Azotobacter vinelandii: Overview of Molecular Mechanisms in Connection with the Oxygen Availability

Escuela de Ingeniería Bioquímica, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Avenida Brasil 2147, Casilla, 4059 Valparaíso, Chile

Received 28 August 2015; Revised 11 January 2016; Accepted 7 February 2016

Academic Editor: Mukund Adsul

Copyright © 2016 Ivette Pacheco-Leyva et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The Gram-negative bacterium Azotobacter vinelandii can synthetize the biopolymer alginate that has material properties appropriate for plenty of applications in industry as well as in medicine. In order to settle the foundation for improving alginate production without compromising its quality, a better understanding of the polymer biosynthesis and the mechanism of regulation during fermentation processes is necessary. This knowledge is crucial for the development of novel production strategies. Here, we highlight the key aspects of alginate biosynthesis that can lead to producing an alginate with specific material properties with particular focus on the role of oxygen availability linked with the molecular mechanisms involved in the alginate production.