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International Journal of Polymer Science
Volume 2016, Article ID 2862738, 8 pages
Research Article

Porous Lactose-Modified Chitosan Scaffold for Liver Tissue Engineering: Influence of Galactose Moieties on Cell Attachment and Mechanical Stability

1Department of Breast and Thyroid Surgery, Puai Hospital, Wuhan 430035, China
2Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022, China
3Biomedical Materials and Engineering Center, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070, China
4Xiamen Niell Electronics Co., Ltd., Xiamen 361000, China
5Department of General Surgery, Xiantao Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Xiantao 433000, China

Received 8 November 2015; Revised 3 January 2016; Accepted 12 January 2016

Academic Editor: Vitor Sencadas

Copyright © 2016 Birong Wang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Galactosylated chitosan (CTS) has been widely applied in liver tissue engineering as scaffold. However, the influence of degree of substitution (DS) of galactose moieties on cell attachment and mechanical stability is not clear. In this study, we synthesized the lactose-modified chitosan (Lact-CTS) with various DS of galactose moieties by Schiff base reaction and reducing action of NaBH4, characterized by FTIR. The DS of Lact-CTS-1, Lact-CTS-2, and Lact-CTS-3 was 19.66%, 48.62%, and 66.21% through the method of potentiometric titration. The cell attachment of hepatocytes on the CTS and Lact-CTS films was enhanced accompanied with the increase of galactose moieties on CTS chain because of the galactose ligand-receptor recognition; however, the mechanical stability of Lact-CTS-3 was reduced contributing to the extravagant hydrophilicity, which was proved using the sessile drop method. Then, the three-dimensional Lact-CTS scaffolds were fabricated by freezing-drying technique. The SEM images revealed the homogeneous pore bearing the favorable connectivity and the pore sizes of scaffolds with majority of 100 μm; however, the extract solution of Lact-CTS-3 scaffold significantly damaged red blood cells by hemolysis assay, indicating that exorbitant DS of Lact-CTS-3 decreased the mechanical stability and increased the toxicity. To sum up, the Lact-CTS-2 with 48.62% of galactose moieties could facilitate the cell attachment and possess great biocompatibility and mechanical stability, indicating that Lact-CTS-2 was a promising material for liver tissue engineering.