Table 3: Examples of chemically modified-alginate based drug delivery systems and biomedical devices.

Type of modificationMaterialActive substanceBiomedical or pharmaceutical applicationDosage formReference

OxidationOxidized-NaALGLimbal epithelial stem cellsImprovement of corneal wound healing therapyHydrogel
Wright et al. [10]
FlurbiprofenSustained oral deliveryBeadsMaiti et al. [11]

Reductive-amination
of oxidized alginate
ALG-g-poly(ethylene glycol)Human foreskin fibroblastsSpecific cell microencapsulationMicrospheresMahou et al. [12]

SulfationSulfated ALGReduction of secretion inflammatory cytokines, improvement of the biocompatibilityMicrospheresArlov et al. [13]

PhosphorylationPhosphorylated ALGMineralization of hydroxyapatite and participation in the chelation process for tissue engineeringGelColeman et al. [14]

Graft copolymerizationNaALG-co-polyacrylamideFamotidineSustained release gastroretentive carrierHydrogelTripathi and Mishra [15]
Starch--poly(acrylic acid)-NaALGDiclofenac sodiumpH-sensitive matrices for the oral drug deliveryHydrogel beadsChang [16]
ALG-glycidyl methacrylate
Human endothelial cell lines HUVEC and L929Thermal polymerizable injectable hydrogel for tissue engineering, especially for myocardial repairHydrogelWang et al. [17]
Galactosylated ALGHepatocytesCell carrier with mechanical stability and selective permeabilityMicrocapsulesTian et al. [18]
α-Cyclodextrin-ALG conjugateSphingomonas cloacaeImmobilization of bacteriaBeadsPluemsab et al. [19]
β-Cyclodextrin-ALG conjugateOndansetronControlled drug delivery systemsGelIzawa et al. [20]

EsterificationPropylene glycol ALGLysozymeProtein encapsulation with a sustained releaseMicroparticlesHurteaux et al. [21]