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International Journal of Polymer Science
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 7158650, 9 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/7158650
Research Article

Biocompatibility Assessment of Poly(lactic acid) Films after Sterilization with Ethylene Oxide in Histological Study In Vivo with Wistar Rats and Cellular Adhesion of Fibroblasts In Vitro

1Exact Sciences and Technology Center, Universidade de Caxias do Sul, 1130 Francisco Getúlio Vargas Street, 95070-560 Caxias do Sul, RS, Brazil
2Biological and Health Sciences Center, Universidade de Caxias do Sul, 1130 Francisco Getúlio Vargas Street, 95070-560 Caxias do Sul, RS, Brazil
3Biomedical Research Institute, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, 6681 Ipiranga Avenue, 90619-900 Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil

Correspondence should be addressed to Rosmary N. Brandalise; rb.scu@adnarbnr

Received 30 January 2017; Revised 20 March 2017; Accepted 27 March 2017; Published 18 April 2017

Academic Editor: Debora Puglia

Copyright © 2017 Michele Savaris et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Biomaterials must meet certain fundamental requirements for their usage in living beings, such as biocompatibility, bifunctionality, and sterilizability, without having chemical and structural changes. The biocompatibility of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) films, shaped by compression, was evaluated after sterilization by ethylene oxide by a histological in vivo test with Wistar rats and cytotoxicity in cell adhesion in vitro. The cytotoxicity test was performed by the reduction of tetrazolium salt (MTT). Thermal and chemical changes in PLA films concerning the proposed sterilization process and characteristics were not observed to evidence polymer degradation due to sterilization. The analysis of the cytotoxicity by the MTT method has shown that the sterilized PLA films are not cytotoxic. The adhesion and proliferation of fibroblasts on PLA films were homogeneously distributed over the evaluation period, showing an elongated appearance with unnumbered cytoplasmic extensions and cell-cell interactions. By examining the biocompatibility in a histological study, a mild tissue inflammation was observed with the presence of fibrosis in the samples that had been exposed for 21 days in the rats’ bodies. PLA films sterilized with ethylene oxide did not exhibit cell adhesion in vitro and toxicity to the surrounding tissue in vivo and they may be used in future in vivo testing, according to histological findings in Wistar rats in the present study.