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International Journal of Polymer Science
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 9850814, 9 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/9850814
Research Article

Preparation and Characterization of Nanofibrillated Cellulose from Bamboo Fiber via Ultrasonication Assisted by Repulsive Effect

Zhejiang Province Collaborative Innovation Center of Agricultural Biological Resources Biochemical Manufacturing, Zhejiang University of Science and Technology, Hangzhou 310023, China

Correspondence should be addressed to Zhijun Hu; nc.ude.ujz@nujihzuh

Received 7 September 2017; Accepted 19 November 2017; Published 26 December 2017

Academic Editor: Xiaofei Tian

Copyright © 2017 Zhijun Hu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Nanofibrillated celluloses (NFCs) have recently drawn much attention because of their exceptional physicochemical properties. However, the existing preparation procedures either produce low yields or severely degrade the cellulose and, moreover, are not energy efficient. The purpose of this study was to develop a novel process using ultrasonic homogenization to isolate fibrils from bamboo fiber (BF) with the assistance of negatively charged entities. The obtained samples were characterized by the degree of substitution (DS) of carboxymethyl, Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that an NFC yield could be obtained above 70% through this route. The enzyme hydrolysis could enhance the surface charge of the fiber, and mechanical activation facilitates an increase in the DS. The disintegrating efficiency of the cellulose fibrils significantly depended on the input power of ultrasonication and the DS. FT-IR spectra confirmed the occurrence of the carboxymethylation reaction based on the appearance of the characteristic signal for the carboxyl group. From XRD analysis, it was observed that the presence of the carboxyl groups makes the isolation more efficient attributed to the ionic repulsion between the carboxylate groups of the cellulose chains.