Table 6: Pore size and gas volume of fresh foams and scaffolds (dried foam) obtained in batch and continuous procedures (, , and ).

Batch processContinuous process (NAGU)
ScaffoldFoamScaffold
FormulationAverage pore diameter (μm) (%) (μm) (%)Average pore diameter (μm) (%)

CS22097.26n.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.
CS/WPI95.7666.7860.696.6
CS/WPI/SiO2n.d.n.d.70.5362.5n.d.97.3
CS/WPI/HAp97.5164.2558.1296.85
CS/WPI/SiO2/HApn.d.n.d.70.2462.596.92

CS: chitosan; WPI: whey protein isolate; HAp: hydroxyapatite; : gas volume fraction in the scaffold; : gas volume fraction obtained during foaming; : bubble size; n.d.: none determined; : liquid flow rate; : gas flow rate; : rotating speed. Each assay was done in triplicate, and data are expressed as the average value.