Direct Healthcare Costs Associated with Oligoarticular Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis at a Single CenterRead the full article
International Journal of Rheumatology publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies on paediatric and adult rheumatological and musculoskeletal conditions, including topics such as basic research, therapy, surgery, and imaging.
International Journal of Rheumatology maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
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Clinical Presentations of Lumbar Disc Degeneration and Lumbosacral Nerve Lesions
Lumbar disc degeneration is defined as the wear and tear of lumbar intervertebral disc, and it is mainly occurring at L3-L4 and L4-S1 vertebrae. Lumbar disc degeneration may lead to disc bulging, osteophytes, loss of disc space, and compression and irritation of the adjacent nerve root. Clinical presentations associated with lumbar disc degeneration and lumbosacral nerve lesion are discogenic pain, radical pain, muscular weakness, and cutaneous. Discogenic pain is usually felt in the lumbar region, or sometimes, it may feel in the buttocks, down to the upper thighs, and it is typically presented with sudden forced flexion and/or rotational moment. Radical pain, muscular weakness, and sensory defects associated with lumbosacral nerve lesions are distributed on lower extremities, the buttock, lower abdomen, and groin region. A lumbosacral plexus lesion presents different symptoms in the territories of the lumbar and sacral nerves. Patients with lumbar plexus lesion clinically present with weakness of hip flexion, knee extension, thigh adduction, and sensory loss in the lower abdomen, inguinal region, and over the entire medial, lateral, and anterior surfaces of the thigh and the medial lower leg, while sacral plexus lesion presents clinical symptoms at nerve fibers destined for the sciatic nerve, common peroneal nerve, and pudendal nerve. Weakness of ankle inversion, plantar flexion, and foot drop are the main clinical manifestations of the sacral plexus lesion area. Numbness and decreased sensation are also present along the anterolateral calf and dorsum of the foot. On examination, foot eversion is usually stronger than foot dorsiflexion. The patients may also present with pain and difficulty of bowel movements, sexual dysfunction assessments, and loss of cutaneous sensation in the areas of the anal canal, anus, labia major, labia minor, clitoris, penis, and scrotum.
Evaluation Effects of Laser Therapy and Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy with Clinical Parameters and Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Treatment of Plantar Fasciitis in Patients with Spondyloarthritis: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Objective. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) and extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) is applied in the conservative treatment of inflammatory plantar fasciitis, which is also a characteristic feature of spondyloarthritis (SpA) (Gill, 1997 and Roxas, 2005). We determined and compared the effectiveness of LLLT and ESWT using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods. This study is a prospective, randomized, comparative, single-blind clinical study. Voluntarily followed 40 patients with the diagnosis of SpA and having pain at the heels at least for 6 months. Patients were divided randomly into two treatment groups. One group undertook 14 sessions of infrared Ga-Al-As LLLT, and the other group undertook 3 sessions ESWT. Feet functions of the patients were evaluated by American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) and Roles and Maudsley Scoring; VAS was evaluated for foot pain and function. In clinical assessment, disease activity was carried out by applying the BASDAI, the functional assessment was evaluated through the BASFI, and the patient quality of life was evaluated through the ASQoL; enthesitis was scored according to MASES assessment, performed before and at 1 month after treatment. The thickness of the plantar fascia was measured with MRI before and 1 month after treatment. Results. Compared with the pretherapy, progress in the feet function by AOFAS and Roles-Maudsley scoring and decrease in VAS levels were statistically significant in both groups (). Only the VAS exercise score was superior to LLLT (). The thickness of the plantar fascia had decreased significantly on MRI in all two groups. Conclusion. The treatment of plantar fasciitis with LLLT and ESWT was more successful in pain improvement and functional outcomes with the dose, frequency, and duration used in our study.
Vaccinations Do Not Increase Arthritis Flares in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis: A Study of the Relationship between Routine Childhood Vaccinations on the Australian Immunisation Schedule and Arthritis Activity in Children with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis
Background. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a collective term for a group of inflammatory conditions of uncertain origin, which causes chronic arthritis in one or more joints. The clinical course of JIA is characterised by episodes of increased activity, termed flares. Vaccinations have previously been proposed as a “trigger” for some flares, although evidence supporting this is scant. Objective. To explore whether routine childhood vaccinations are associated with an increased risk of flares of arthritis activity in children with JIA. Methods. Patients aged below 6 years with a diagnosis of JIA were recruited from the Rheumatology Clinical Database at the Royal Children’s Hospital, Melbourne, Australia, from 1 January 2010 to 30 April 2016. Patient immunisation status was cross-checked with the Australian Childhood Immunisation Register (ACIR). The self-controlled case series methodology (Rowhani-Rahbar et al., 2012) was applied to determine whether the risk of arthritis flares in the three months following immunisation was greater than the baseline risk for each patient. Results. 138 patients were included in the study. 32 arthritis flares occurred in the 90 days following immunisation. The risk of arthritis flares during the 90 days following immunisation was reduced compared with patients’ baseline risk (RR 0.59 (95% CI 0.39-0.89, )). Conclusion. Routine childhood immunisations were not associated with arthritis flare onset in patients with JIA. The risk of arthritis flares in the 90 days following vaccination was lower than the baseline risk. In the context of COVID19, vaccination will not increase interaction with the healthcare system beyond the immunisation encounter.
Serum Peptidomic Profile as a Novel Biomarker for Rheumatoid Arthritis
Over the last decades, there has been an increasing need to discover new diagnostic RA biomarkers, other than the current serologic biomarkers, which can assist early diagnosis and response to treatment. The purpose of this study was to analyze the serum peptidomic profile in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). The study included 35 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 35 patients with primary osteoarthritis (OA) as the disease control (DC), and 35 healthy controls (HC). All participants were subjected to serum peptidomic profile analysis using magnetic bead (MB) separation (MALDI-TOF-MS). The trial showed 113 peaks that discriminated RA from OA and 101 peaks that discriminated RA from HC. Moreover, 95 peaks were identified and discriminated OA from HC; 38 were significant () and 57 nonsignificant. The genetic algorithm (GA) model showed the best sensitivity and specificity in the three trials (RA versus HC, OA versus HC, and RA versus OA). The present data suggested that the peptidomic pattern is of value for differentiating individuals with RA from OA and healthy controls. We concluded that MALDI-TOF-MS combined with MB is an effective technique to identify novel serum protein biomarkers related to RA.
Are Stem Cells Derived from Synovium and Fat Pad Able to Treat Induced Knee Osteoarthritis in Rats?
Background. Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic disease and a significant cause of joint pain, tenderness, and limitation of motion. At present, no specific treatment is available, and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have shown promising potentials in this regard. Herein, we aimed to evaluate the repairing potentials of stem cells derived from the synovium and fat pad in the treatment of OA. Methods. Twenty-eight male rats (, aged 10-12 weeks), were randomly divided into four groups (): C1: nontreated group, C2: Hyalgan-treated group, E1: adipose tissue-derived stem cell-treated group, and E2: synovial membrane-based stem cell-treated group. Collagenase type II was injected into the left knee; after eight weeks, OA was developed. Then, stem cells were injected, and rats were followed for three months. Afterward, specimens and radiological images were investigated. value ≤ 0.05 was set as statistically significant. Results. Compared to the C1 group, the E1 and E2 groups showed significantly better results in all six pathological criteria as well as joint space width and osteophytes of medial tibial, medial femoral, and medial fabellar condyles (). Similarly, compared to the C2 group, the E1 and E2 groups had better scores regarding surface, matrix, cell distribution, and cell population viability (). E2 showed considerably higher scores compared to C2 regarding subchondral bone and cartilage mineralization (). The joint space width was similar between the C2 and E groups. Conclusion. Treatment of OA with MSCs, particularly synovial membrane-derived stem cells, not only prevented but also healed OA of the knee to some extent in comparison to the Hyalgan and nontreatment groups.
Correlation between C-reactive Protein with Malondialdehyde in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Patients
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by an inflammatory process. One of the inflammation markers that can be measured is C-reactive protein (CRP). Another indicator of inflammation is malondialdehyde (MDA), though it is still uncommon to be analyzed in SLE patients. The study looked for the MDA value and found a correlation with CRP. A cross-sectional study design with a correlative analytical was performed. CRP level data was taken from Hasan Sadikin lupus registry data, and MDA levels were analyzed from a bioarchive patient’s serum. We collected the patients’ data who had CRP level from Hasan Sadikin lupus registry and analysed MDA levels from the serum sample. MDA levels were analyzed using an ELISA method. The data obtained were analyzed using the Pearson correlation and Eta correlation test. The study involved 78 data patients as subjects. It was found that the median of CRP and MDA was 0.85 mg/l and 153.10 ng/ml, respectively. These results indicate that the CRP levels in SLE patients are still within normal limits. Statistical analysis showed no correlation between CRP and MDA level (, ). Additionally, the correlation between CRP and MDA with organ involvement, such as lupus nephritis (LN), lupus cutaneous (LC), and lupus musculoskeletal (LM), showed no correlation (). There is no correlation between CRP and MDA levels in SLE patients, and specific organ involvement of the disease does not affect the correlation.