International Journal of Rheumatology
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Depression-, Pain-, and Health-Related Quality of Life in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

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International Journal of Rheumatology publishes original research articles and review articles on paediatric and adult rheumatological and musculoskeletal conditions, including topics such as basic research, therapy, surgery, and imaging.

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International Journal of Rheumatology maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.

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Research Article

Polymorphism in STAT4 Increase the Risk of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: An Updated Meta-Analysis

Previous studies have reported that STAT4 rs7574865 conferred the susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In this study, a meta-analysis (including 32 comparative studies of 11384 patients and 17609 controls) was conducted to investigate the role of STAT4 polymorphism in SLE in a comprehensive way. We found that the Asian population had the highest prevalence of the T allele than any other study population at 32.2% and that STAT4 rs7574865 polymorphism was associated with SLE in the overall population (, -1.665, ). In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, STAT4 rs7574865 T allele was shown to be risk factor in SLE in Asian, European, and American origins. Our results do support STAT4 rs7574865 polymorphism as a susceptibility factor for SLE in populations of different ethnic and that its prevalence is ethnicity dependent.

Research Article

Retrospective Analysis of Factors Associated with Fracture in 714 Patients with Polymyalgia Rheumatica

Introduction. Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) is a disease of the elderly, associated with increased fracture risk due to glucocorticosteroid (GC) treatment with the additional possible influence of chronic inflammation. Risk factors for fracture in PMR have not been extensively studied. Hip structure analysis (HSA) is a way to measure bone morphology in the hip using dual X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). It has been used as a predictor of fracture in epidemiological settings. HSA has not been studied in PMR before. Objectives. The object of this retrospective study was to determine if fracture risk in PMR was associated with densitometry data and to determine the influence, if any, of HSA on that association. Methods. 714 patients with PMR referred for a bone density estimate at a district general hospital from June 2004 to October 2010 were studied. Demographic data, GC use, alcohol consumption, smoking status, secondary osteoporosis, and fracture history were recorded. Bone mineral density (BMD), score, score, body composition data, and HSA measurements were collected. These were geometric measurements taken from 2-dimensional DEXA images of the hip. Fracture was modelled as an outcome variable using logistic regression models, adjusted for age and sex. And the fit of the model was assessed by comparing the area under the curve (AUC). Results. 714 patients were studied, 532 (75%) were female, and mean age was 70.5 with SD of 8.8. 703 (98%) had been treated with GCs. Lumbar and femoral BMD models were significantly associated with fracture. Right femur OR 0.062 (0.014-0.285), left femur OR 0.098 (0.023-0.412), right femoral neck 0.078 (0.014-0.43), left femoral neck 0.104 (0.022-0.492), L1 0.192 (0.066-0.56), L2 OR 0.138 (0.053-0.358), L3 0.192 (0.079-0.463), and L4 0.243 (0.108-0.544). Cross-sectional area was the only HSA parameter that was associated with fracture OR 0.988 (0.980–0.997). Conclusion. L2 association models were strongest. Prospective studies are needed to elucidate whether these factors predict future fracture. GC data were binary, not reflecting dose and duration.

Research Article

Autoimmune Regulator Gene Polymorphisms in Egyptian Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Patients: Preliminary Results

Background. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune disease. The autoimmune regulator (AIRE) is a master regulator of self-tolerance development. AIRE mutations lead to the development of autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1 while AIRE polymorphisms have been linked to organ-specific autoimmunity. The study is aimed at addressing the association between AIRE polymorphisms, rs2075876 (G > A) and rs760426 (A > G), and SLE susceptibility and expression in Egyptian patients. Methods. Ninety-nine patients were included. One hundred and ten, and 123 control subjects were genotyped for rs2075876 and rs760426, respectively. Lupus severity was assessed using the Lupus Severity of Disease Index and Lupus Severity Index (LSI). Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC)/American College of Rheumatology (ACR) damage index was considered. Genotyping was done using StepOne Real-Time PCR. Results. AIRE rs760426 GG was more frequent in the patients under the genotype level (14.1% vs. 4.9%, ) and recessive model (14.1% vs. 4.9%, , (1.2-8.7)). Musculoskeletal involvement and nephritis were associated with AIRE rs2075876 under the dominant (97.9% vs. 80.8%, , (1.3-89.2)) and recessive models (100% vs. 69.3%, ), respectively; and both were linked to AIRE rs2075876 at the allelic level: 98.3% vs. 85%, , (1.3-76.6) and 82.8% vs. 68.6, , (1-4.7), respectively. Patients with AIRE rs2075876 A alleles had a higher damage index ( 1 ± 1.3 vs. 0.6 ± 1.1, ) while the LSI was greater in patients with AIRE rs2075876 (8.5 ± 0.5 vs. 7.8 ± 1.3, ) and rs760426 (8.6 ± 11 vs. 7.8 ± 1.2, ) under the recessive models. Conclusion. AIRE rs760426 could share in SLE susceptibility while AIRE rs2075876 could influence the disease expression and burden in Egyptian patients.

Research Article

Tocilizumab Effect on Lipid Profile in Correlation to Cardiovascular Events: A Retrospective Cohort Study

Objective. To study the effect of tocilizumab initiation on the lipid profile, in correlation to a composite of any cardiovascular events. Methods. A retrospective cohort study, using data from the King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Centre database, from January 2014 to December 2019. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis or juvenile idiopathic arthritis who were ≥18 years old, initiated either on tocilizumab or other biologic treatment (anti-TNFs or Rituximab), were included, with a follow-up interval duration at a minimum of 6–12 months up to 3-5 years. Any patient with established cardiovascular disease or aged <18 were excluded. Results. Only one cardiovascular mortality was reported in the tocilizumab group. Fifty percent of patients reached and in the tocilizumab group at 36 months in a shorter time period compared to controls (60 months),  0.001. There were no significant differences between groups for statin use (27% vs. 28%) However, there was a significantly higher mean dose of atorvastatin in the tocilizumab group compared to controls (20.6 mg vs. 16.6 mg,  0.03). Conclusion. There was a lack of evidence of increased cardiovascular risk in correlation to hyperlipidemia secondary to tocilizumab treatment.

Review Article

Cutaneous Manifestations of “Lupus”: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Beyond

Lupus, Latin for “wolf,” is a term used to describe many dermatologic conditions, some of which are related to underlying systemic lupus erythematosus, while others are distinct disease processes. Cutaneous lupus erythematosus includes a wide array of visible skin manifestations and can progress to systemic lupus erythematosus in some cases. Cutaneous lupus can be subdivided into three main categories: acute cutaneous lupus erythematosus, subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus, and chronic cutaneous lupus erythematosus. Physical exam, laboratory studies, and histopathology enable differentiation of cutaneous lupus subtypes. This differentiation is paramount as the subtype of cutaneous lupus informs upon treatment, disease monitoring, and prognostication. This review outlines the different cutaneous manifestations of lupus erythematosus and provides an update on both topical and systemic treatment options for these patients. Other conditions that utilize the term “lupus” but are not cutaneous lupus erythematosus are also discussed.

Review Article

Update in the Management of ANCA-Associated Vasculitis: Recent Developments and Future Perspectives

Significant progress has been made in the treatment of ANCA-associated vasculitides (AAV), notably in granulomatosis with polyangiitis and microscopic polyangiitis. Over the past few years, many innovative studies have changed the way we now induce and maintain remission in AAV; achieving remission while limiting treatment toxicity is the key. This article provides an in-depth, up-to-date summary of recent trials and suggests treatment algorithms for induction and maintenance of remission based on the latest guidelines. Future possible therapies in AAV will also be discussed.

International Journal of Rheumatology
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Acceptance rate-
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CiteScore3.400
Journal Citation Indicator0.420
Impact Factor-
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