The Micro-Immunotherapy Medicine 2LARTH® Reduces Inflammation and Symptoms of Rheumatoid Arthritis In VivoRead the full article
International Journal of Rheumatology publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies on paediatric and adult rheumatological and musculoskeletal conditions, including topics such as basic research, therapy, surgery, and imaging.
International Journal of Rheumatology maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
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Demographic and Clinical Patterns of Rheumatoid Arthritis in an Emirati Cohort from United Arab Emirates
This retrospective cohort study aimed to assess the demographic and clinical characteristics of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in Emirati patients attending Cleveland Clinic Abu Dhabi, a large tertiary center in the Middle East. In this study, 414 Emirati patients with RA were evaluated over a 3-year period from April 2015 to April 2018. All patients fulfilled the 2010 RA ACR/EULAR criteria and were assessed for demographic and clinical characteristics. The estimated RA prevalence rate in our population cohort was 2.72%. Females showed predominance (80%) with a higher body mass index (31.4 ± 6.61, ) compared to males (28.8 ± 6.03, ). The most frequent comorbidity observed was dyslipidemia (43.5%) followed by hypertension (37.9%), diabetes mellitus (34.5%), and gastroesophageal reflux disease (33.1%). Xerophthalmia was the most frequent extra-articular manifestation. Rheumatoid factor and anti-citrullinated peptide were detected in 63.3% and 41.5% patients, respectively, while both were present in 33.3% of patients. Methotrexate, adalimumab, and rituximab were the most frequently prescribed disease modifying agents. In this study, we describe disease features that are unique to United Arab Emirates (UAE) patients and demonstrate that RA has a significant disease burden. Our findings highlight the need for a RA national registry to improve the quality of care of these patients in UAE.
The Contribution of Drugs and Helicobacter pylori to Gastric Mucosa Changes in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Antiphospholipid Syndrome
Background. The nature and rate of gastric mucosal (GM) damage in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) remain to be among the unsolved problems. Objective. To define the role of H. pylori and drugs in the development of GM damages in SLE and APS. Methods. A study was conducted on 85 patients with SLE and APS. All the patients underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy with targeted biopsy of the mucosa of the gastric body and antrum. The presence of H. pylori in the gastric biopsy specimens was determined using polymerase chain reaction. Results. Endoscopic examination revealed that the patients with SLE and APS on admission had the following GM changes: antral gastritis (82.4%), erosions (24.7%), hemorrhages (8.2%), and pangastritis (8.2%). SLE and APS patients showed no direct correlation between the found GM damages and the presence of H. pylori. The use of glucocorticoid, low-dose acetylsalicylic acid, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, and anticoagulant in SLE and APS patients is accompanied by GM damage. Conclusion. There was no evidence of the role of H. pylori in GM damage in the SLE and APS patients. More frequent detection of H. pylori was observed in anticoagulants or low-dose acetylsalicylic acid users than in glucocorticoids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs ones.
Simultaneous Adalimumab and Antitubercular Treatment for Latent Tubercular Infection: An Experience from Nepal
Introduction. In Nepal, adalimumab is the most common agent being used, but in a disease activity-based dose tapering to address the economic constraints. Another constraint is the high risk of reactivation of tuberculosis in countries with high burden, especially with the use of tumor necrosis factor blocking agents. Though there are recommendations for screening and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) before using adalimumab, data is not clear regarding the appropriate screening schedule and the timing of initiation of biologic therapy. Methodology. This retrospective review of prospectively followed cohort of spondyloarthropathy patients aimed to evaluate the efficacy of simultaneous initiation of adalimumab with LTBI treatment. Patients fulfilling either the modified New York criteria for ankylosing spondylitis or Assessment in SpondyloArthritis international Society criteria and who were refractory to oral treatment were screened with Mantoux (≥10mm) and interferon gamma release assay (QuantiFERON) to detected LTBI. Those who tested positive were started on rifampicin/isoniazid combination for 3 months and adalimumab treatment on the same day. The patients were followed up at 2 weeks, 4 weeks, 12 weeks, and then every 3 months for 2 years. Results. Out of 784 patients diagnosed, 92 were receiving adalimumab. LTBI was detected by positivity of either Mantoux or QuantiFERON in 29.3% patients. None of the patients with LTBI who were started on the 2 drug regime simultaneous with adalimumab developed activation of tuberculosis. However, two patients testing negative for both the tests developed tubercular pleural effusion during treatment. Conclusions. Our findings indicate that screening for LTBI should be more frequent in patients from high tuberculosis burden countries; treatment of LTBI with rifampicin/isoniazid combination for 3 months is effective in preventing reactivation even when adalimumab is started simultaneously.
Vertebral Fractures among Patients Referred for Bone Densitometry Screening in Dubai Primary Health Care Facilities
Vertebral fractures are one of the most common fractures associated with low bone mineral density. However two-thirds to three-fourths of patients with vertebral fractures are not clinically recognized. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of vertebral fractures in patients referred for bone densitometry and the most common site of fracture. The study was carried out in the osteoporosis clinic in Dubai primary health care center. A total of 120 patients were examined using the dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Of all the patients, 48.3% were osteoporotic and 40.9% were osteopenic. The overall prevalence of vertebral fracture was 14.2%. The result showed that the prevalence of vertebral fracture was higher in female compared to male (15.7% and 9.7%, respectively). It was found that patients aged 80 and above had the highest prevalence of vertebral fracture (54.5%). Undiagnosed vertebral fractures were common. Therefore, it is crucial to prevent vertebral fracture through early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of osteoporosis.
Medication Adherence and Coping Strategies in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Cross-Sectional Study
Objectives. The aim of this study was to determine if strategies for coping with illnesses, demographic factors, and clinical factors were associated with medication adherence among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods. This cross-sectional study was conducted at a Viennese rheumatology outpatient clinic on RA patients. Medication adherence was assessed using the Medication Adherence Report Scale. Strategies for coping with illness were assessed using the Freiburg Questionnaire for Coping with Illness. Results. Half (N=63, 52.5%) of the 120 patients included in the study were considered completely medication adherent. Female sex (odds ratio [OR]: 4.57, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.14 – 18.42), older age (54-65 yr vs. <45 yr OR: 9.2, CI:2.0-40.70; >65 yr vs. <45 yr OR 6.93, CI:1,17 – 40.87), middle average income (middle average income vs. lowest income class OR= 0.06, CI= 0.01-0.43), and shorter disease duration (5-10 yr vs. >10 yr OR= 3.53, CI= 1.04-11.95; 1-4 yr vs. >10 yr OR=3.71, CI= 1.02-13.52) were associated with higher medication adherence. Levels of active coping (15.57 vs. 13.47, p=0.01) or diversion and self-encouragement (16.10 vs. 14.37, p=0.04) were significantly higher among adherent as opposed to less adherent participants. However, in multivariate regression models, coping strategies were not significantly associated with adherence. Conclusions. Age, sex, monthly net income, and disease duration were found to be associated with an increased risk for medication nonadherence among patients with RA. Coping strategies such as active coping, diversion, and self-encouragement were associated with adherence in univariate models, but not when adjusted for demographic and clinical factors.
Impact of a Student-Led Rheumatology Interest Group on Medical Student Interest in Rheumatology
Objectives. This observational study was designed to evaluate the impact of a student-led Rheumatology Interest Group on medical student interest in rheumatology. Methods. The mean numbers of student-rheumatology interactions per six months were assessed for elective enrollment, abstract submissions, and manuscripts, in the pre- and postinterest group period. Results. Enrollment in the rheumatology elective increased from 2.0 ± 0.36 per six months in the preintervention period to 6.2 ± 1.24 per six months in the postintervention period (p=0.0064). Abstract submissions increased from 0.5 ± 0.34 to 5.86 ± 1.49 (p=0.0077), and manuscript submissions from 0.16 ± 0.16 to 1.57 ± 0.37 (p=0.074). Conclusion. The Rheumatology Interest Group significantly increased medical student engagement in rheumatology.