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International Journal of Rheumatology
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 637452, 11 pages
Research Article

TNF-Alpha in the Locomotor System beyond Joints: High Degree of Involvement in Myositis in a Rabbit Model

1Anatomy Section, Department of Integrative Medical Biology, Umeå University, 901 87 Umeå, Sweden
2Department of Physical Therapies, Australian Institute of Sport, Belconnen, ACT 2616, Australia
3School of Primary Health Care, Monash University, Frankston, VIC 3199, Australia

Received 29 August 2011; Revised 3 November 2011; Accepted 4 December 2011

Academic Editor: Simone Appenzeller

Copyright © 2012 Sture Forsgren et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The importance of TNF-alpha in arthritis is well documented. It may be that TNF-alpha is also markedly involved in muscle inflammation (myositis). An animal model where this can be investigated is needed. A newly developed rabbit myositis model involving pronounced muscle overuse and local injections of substances having proinflammatory effects was therefore used in the present study. The aim was to investigate the patterns of TNF-alpha expression in the developing myositis and to evaluate the usefulness of this myositis model for further TNF-alpha research. Human rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovial tissue was examined as a reference. TNF-alpha immunoexpression and TNF-alpha mRNA, visualized via in situ hybridization, were detected in cells in the inflammatory infiltrates of the affected muscle (soleus muscle). Coexistence of TNF-alpha and CD68 immunoreactions was noted, suggesting that the TNF-alpha reactive cells are macrophages. Expression of TNF-alpha mRNA was also noted in muscle fibers and blood vessel walls in areas with inflammation. These findings demonstrate that TNF-alpha is highly involved in the myositis process. The model can be used in further studies evaluating the importance of TNF-alpha in developing myositis.