Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Rheumatology
Volume 2014, Article ID 523897, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/523897
Research Article

Hyperuricemia and Incident Cardiovascular Disease and Noncardiac Vascular Events in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

1Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, 200 1st Street SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
2Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, 200 1st Street SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
3Division of Rheumatology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, 200 1st Street SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA

Received 17 June 2014; Accepted 4 August 2014; Published 17 August 2014

Academic Editor: Shinichi Kawai

Copyright © 2014 Daniel Kuo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. D. H. Solomon, E. W. Karlson, E. B. Rimm et al., “Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in women diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis,” Circulation, vol. 107, no. 9, pp. 1303–1307, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. L. Lévy, B. Fautrel, T. Barnetche, and T. Schaeverbeke, “Incidence and risk of fatal myocardial infarction and stroke events in rheumatoid arthritis patients. A systematic review of the literature,” Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 673–679, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. J. A. Aviña-Zubieta, H. K. Choi, M. Sadatsafavi, M. Etminan, J. M. Esdaile, and D. Lacaille, “Risk of cardiovascular mortality in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a meta-analysis of observational studies,” Arthritis and Rheumatism, vol. 59, no. 12, pp. 1690–1697, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. C. Meune, E. Touzé, L. Trinquart, and Y. Allanore, “Trends in cardiovascular mortality in patients with rheumatoid arthritis over 50 years: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies.,” Rheumatology, vol. 48, no. 10, pp. 1309–1313, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. D. P. Symmons and S. E. Gabriel, “Epidemiology of CVD in rheumatic disease, with a focus on RA and SLE,” Nature Reviews Rheumatology, vol. 7, no. 7, pp. 399–408, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. C. S. Crowson, E. L. Matteson, V. L. Roger, T. M. Therneau, and S. E. Gabriel, “Usefulness of risk scores to estimate the risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with rheumatoid arthritis,” The American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 110, no. 3, pp. 420–424, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. A. Gonzalez, H. Maradit Kremers, C. S. Crowson et al., “Do cardiovascular risk factors confer the same risk for cardiovascular outcomes in rheumatoid arthritis patients as in non-rheumatoid arthritis patients?” Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, vol. 67, no. 1, pp. 64–69, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. B. F. Culleton, M. G. Larson, W. B. Kannel, and D. Levy, “Serum uric acid and risk for cardiovascular disease and death: the Framingham heart study,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 131, no. 1, pp. 7–13, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. T. M. Palmer, B. G. Nordestgaard, M. Benn et al., “Association of plasma uric acid with ischaemic heart disease and blood pressure: Mendelian randomization analysis of two large cohorts,” British Medical Journal, vol. 347, article f4262, Article ID f4262, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. P. C. Grayson, S. Y. Kim, M. Lavalley, and H. K. Choi, “Hyperuricemia and incident hypertension: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Arthritis Care and Research, vol. 63, no. 1, pp. 102–110, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. H. Huang, B. Huang, Y. Li et al., “Uric acid and risk of heart failure: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” European Journal of Heart Failure, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 15–24, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  12. S. Y. Kim, J. P. Guevara, K. M. Kim, H. K. Choi, D. F. Heitjan, and D. A. Albert, “Hyperuricemia and coronary heart disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Arthritis Care and Research, vol. 62, no. 2, pp. 170–180, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. S. Y. Kim, J. P. Guevara, K. M. Kim, H. K. Choi, D. F. Heitjan, and D. A. Albert, “Hyperuricemia and risk of stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Arthritis and Rheumatism, vol. 61, no. 7, pp. 885–892, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. M. Kanbay, M. Segal, B. Afsar, D. Kang, B. Rodriguez-Iturbe, and R. J. Johnson, “The role of uric acid in the pathogenesis of human cardiovascular disease,” Heart, vol. 99, no. 11, pp. 759–766, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. V. F. Panoulas, K. M. Douglas, H. J. Milionis et al., “Serum uric acid is independently associated with hypertension in patients with rheumatoid arthritis,” Journal of Human Hypertension, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 177–182, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. V. F. Panoulas, H. J. Milionis, K. M. Douglas et al., “Association of serum uric acid with cardiovascular disease in rheumatoid arthritis,” Rheumatology, vol. 46, no. 9, pp. 1466–1470, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. S. P. Juraschek, L. C. Kovell, E. R. Miller, and A. C. Gelber, “Dose-Response Association of Uncontrolled Blood Pressure and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors with Hyperuricemia and Gout,” PLoS ONE, vol. 8, no. 2, Article ID e56546, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. E. Myasoedova, C. S. Crowson, H. M. Kremers, T. M. Therneau, and S. E. Gabriel, “Is the incidence of rheumatoid arthritis rising? Results from Olmsted County, Minnesota, 1955–2007,” Arthritis and Rheumatism, vol. 62, no. 6, pp. 1576–1582, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. F. C. Arnett, S. M. Edworthy, D. A. Bloch et al., “The American Rheumatism Association 1987 revised criteria for the classification of rheumatoid arthritis,” Arthritis and Rheumatism, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 315–324, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. A. K. Bacani, S. E. Gabriel, C. S. Crowson, J. A. Heit, and E. L. Matteson, “Noncardiac vascular disease in rheumatoid arthritis: increase in venous thromboembolic events?” Arthritis & Rheumatism, vol. 64, no. 1, pp. 53–61, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. T. A. Gooley, W. Leisenring, J. Crowley, and B. E. Storer, “Estimation of failure probabilities in the presence of competing risks: new representations of old estimators,” Statistics in Medicine, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 695–706, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  22. R. J. Gray, “A class of K-sample tests for comparing the cumulative incidence of a competing risk,” Annals of Statistics, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 1141–1154, 1988. View at Google Scholar
  23. Y. Zhu, B. J. Pandya, and H. K. Choi, “Prevalence of gout and hyperuricemia in the US general population: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2008,” Arthritis and Rheumatism, vol. 63, no. 10, pp. 3136–3141, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. A. Jebakumar, P. D. Udayakumar, C. S. Crowson, and E. L. Matteson, “Occurrence of gout in rheumatoid arthritis: it does happen! A population-based study,” International Journal of Clinical Rheumatology, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 433–437, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. K. H. Yu, S. F. Luo, W. P. Tsai, and Y. Y. Huang, “Intermittent elevation of serum urate and 24-hour urinary uric acid excretion,” Rheumatology, vol. 43, no. 12, pp. 1541–1545, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. M. J. Bos, P. J. Koudstaal, A. Hofman, J. C. M. Witteman, and M. M. B. Breteler, “Uric acid is a risk factor for myocardial infarction and stroke: The Rotterdam Study,” Stroke, vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 1503–1507, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. I. Holme, A. H. Aastveit, N. Hammar, I. Jungner, and G. Walldius, “Uric acid and risk of myocardial infarction, stroke and congestive heart failure in 417 734 men and women in the Apolipoprotein MOrtality RISk study (AMORIS),” Journal of Internal Medicine, vol. 266, no. 6, pp. 558–570, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. A. Shankar, B. E. Klein, F. J. Nieto, and R. Klein, “Association between serum uric acid level and peripheral arterial disease,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 196, no. 2, pp. 749–755, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. J. F. Baker, H. R. Schumacher, and E. Krishnan, “Serum uric acid level and risk for peripheral arterial disease: analysis of data from the multiple risk factor intervention trial,” Angiology, vol. 58, no. 4, pp. 450–457, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. U. M. Khosla, S. Zharikov, J. L. Finch et al., “Hyperuricemia induces endothelial dysfunction,” Kidney International, vol. 67, no. 5, pp. 1739–1742, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. D. H. Kang, J. E. Park, E. S. Yoo, L. K. Lee, and R. J. Johnson, “Uric acid induced the expression of C-reactive protein (CRP) in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) via MAP kinase-dependent and angiotensin II-mediated pathway,” Atherosclerosis Supplements, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 332–333, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  32. P. M. Ridker, M. Cushman, M. J. Stampfer, R. P. Tracy, and C. H. Hennekens, “Plasma concentration of C-reactive protein and risk of developing peripheral vascular disease,” Circulation, vol. 97, no. 5, pp. 425–428, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. G. Zhao, L. Huang, M. Song, and Y. Song, “Baseline serum uric acid level as a predictor of cardiovascular disease related mortality and all-cause mortality: a meta-analysis of prospective studies,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 231, no. 1, pp. 61–68, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  34. P. Hu, T. E. Seeman, T. B. Harris, and D. B. Reuben, “Is serum uric acid level associated with all-cause mortality in high-functioning older persons: MacArthur studies of successful aging?” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, vol. 49, no. 12, pp. 1679–1684, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. J. L. St Sauver, B. R. Grossardt, C. L. Leibson, B. P. Yawn, L. J. Melton III, and W. A. Rocca, “Generalizability of epidemiological findings and public health decisions: an illustration from the Rochester Epidemiology Project,” Mayo Clinic Proceedings, vol. 87, no. 2, pp. 151–160, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus