Table 2: Dietary mean intake among women with RA and without RA in 1997 and 2009.

Intake, servings per week (mean ± SD)
YearFood category 1RA (n=191)No RA (n=21,411)p value2

1997Fruits14.00 ±8.6115.12 ± 9.80N.S.
Vegetables29.26 ± 14.4930.10 ± 15.47N.S.
Cereals and grains34.79 ± 12.7436.68 ± 15.47N.S.
White meat0.77 ± 0.910.70 ± 0.77N.S.
Red meat5.81 ± 3.576.30 ± 3.99N.S.
Fish and seafood3.92 ± 2.873.71 ± 2.80N.S.
Other animal products2.45 ± 1.822.94 ± 2.730.010
Dairy products28.42 ± 16.1035.14 ± 20.020.040
Alcohol4.90 ± 4.275.04 ± 4.83N.S.
Coffee and tea27.79 ± 11.6227.23 ± 12.88N.S.
High sugary products28.00 ± 24.7824.57 ± 19.11N.S.
Nuts, salty snacks/foods1.26 ± 0.911.33 ± 1.47N.S.
Sauce2.31 ± 2.102.24 ± 2.24N.S.

2009Fruits13.86 ± 8.4714.98 ± 9.73N.S.
Vegetables26.60 ± 12.6027.51 ± 13.30N.S.
Cereals and grains28.00 ± 14.9831.01 ± 15.540.009
White meat0.98 ± 0.771.05 ± 0.84N.S.
Red meat6.86 ± 4.347.56 ± 4.97N.S.
Fish and seafood4.20 ± 2.594.48 ± 2.87N.S.
Other animal products5.18 ± 6.655.53 ± 6.72N.S.
Dairy products37.52 ± 23.5935.77 ± 21.56N.S.
Alcohol2.03 ± 2.032.45 ± 2.52N.S.
Coffee and tea25.06 ± 14.7025.06 ± 14.00N.S.
High sugary products18.27 ± 15.2616.73 ± 15.19N.S.
Nuts, salty snacks/foods1.33 ± 1.471.75 ± 2.45N.S.
Sauce1.75 ±1.681.89 ± 2.24N.S.

N.S.: not significant; RA: rheumatoid arthritis; SD: standard deviation.
1Food categorization is presented in the appendix.
2p value from Mann–Whitney U test; the significance level is 0.05.