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International Journal of Reconfigurable Computing
Volume 2009, Article ID 219140, 9 pages
Research Article

Pipeline FFT Architectures Optimized for FPGAs

1Department of Electronic Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
2Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030, USA

Received 28 February 2009; Accepted 23 June 2009

Academic Editor: Cesar Torres

Copyright © 2009 Bin Zhou et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This paper presents optimized implementations of two different pipeline FFT processors on Xilinx Spartan-3 and Virtex-4 FPGAs. Different optimization techniques and rounding schemes were explored. The implementation results achieved better performance with lower resource usage than prior art. The 16-bit 1024-point FFT with the R22SDF architecture had a maximum clock frequency of 95.2 MHz and used 2802 slices on the Spartan-3, a throughput per area ratio of 0.034 Msamples/s/slice. The R4SDC architecture ran at 123.8 MHz and used 4409 slices on the Spartan-3, a throughput per area ratio of 0.028 Msamples/s/slice. On Virtex-4, the 16-bit 1024-point R22SDF architecture ran at 235.6 MHz and used 2256 slice, giving a 0.104 Msamples/s/slice ratio; the 16-bit 1024-point R4SDC architecture ran at 219.2 MHz and used 3064 slices, giving a 0.072 Msamples/s/slice ratio. The R22SDF was more efficient than the R4SDC in terms of throughput per area due to a simpler controller and an easier balanced rounding scheme. This paper also shows that balanced stage rounding is an appropriate rounding scheme for pipeline FFT processors.