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International Journal of Surgical Oncology
Volume 2011, Article ID 231475, 5 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/231475
Review Article

Molecular Markers in Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma

1Department of Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD, USA
2Department of Oncology, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD, USA
3Department of Surgery, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD, USA
4Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA
5Division of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Department of Surgery, Samaritan Medical Center, Watertown, NY, USA
6Department of Surgery and Cancer Immunobiology Center, UT Southwestern Medical, Dallas, TX, USA

Received 16 March 2011; Accepted 4 June 2011

Academic Editor: Richard Martin

Copyright © 2011 Anthony P. Tufaro et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Nonmelanoma skin carcinoma (NMSC) is the most frequent cancer in the USA with over 1.3 million new diagnoses a year; however due to an underappreciation of its associated mortality and growing incidence and its ability to be highly aggressive, the molecular mechanism is not well delineated. Whereas the molecular profiles of melanoma have been well characterized, those for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) have trailed behind. This importance of the new staging paradigm is linked to the ability currently to better clinically cluster similar biologic behavior in order to risk-stratify lesions and patients. In this paper we discuss the trends in NMSC and the etiologies for the subset of NMSC with the most mortality, cutaneous SCC, as well as where the field stands in the discovery of a molecular profile. The molecular markers are highlighted to demonstrate the recent advances in cSCC.