Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Surgical Oncology
Volume 2012, Article ID 247107, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/247107
Review Article

Approach to Rectal Cancer Surgery

1Hepatobiliary and Surgical Oncology Unit, UNSW Department of Surgery, St George Hospital, Kogarah, NSW 2217, Australia
2St George Clinical School, Faculty of Medicine, UNSW, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
3Cancer Care Centre, Department of Medical Oncology, St George Hospital, Kogarah, NSW 2217, Australia

Received 15 April 2012; Accepted 3 May 2012

Academic Editor: Manousos-Georgios Pramateftakis

Copyright © 2012 Terence C. Chua et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. (AIHW), Australian Cancer Incidence and Mortality (ACIM) Books, AIHW, Canberra, Australia, 2011.
  2. R. Siegel, D. Naishadham, and A. Jemal, “Cancer statistics,” CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinician, vol. 62, no. 1, pp. 10–29, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  3. N. Smith and G. Brown, “Preoperative staging of rectal cancer,” Acta Oncologica, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 20–31, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. A. Mellgren, P. Sirivongs, D. A. Rothenberger, R. D. Madoff, J. Garcia-Aguilar, and G. D. Steele, “Is local excision adequate therapy for early rectal cancer?” Diseases of the Colon and Rectum, vol. 43, no. 8, pp. 1064–1074, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. P. Palma, K. Horisberger, A. Joos, S. Rothenhoefer, F. Willeke, and S. Post, “Local excision of early rectal cancer: is transanal endoscopic microsurgery an alternative to radical surgery?” Revista Espanola de Enfermedades Digestivas, vol. 101, no. 3, pp. 172–178, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. E. Kim, J. M. Hwang, and J. Garcia-Aguilar, “Local excision for rectal carcinoma,” Clinical Colorectal Cancer, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 376–385, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. J. Garcia-Aguilar, A. Mellgren, P. Sirivongs, D. Buie, R. D. Madoff, and D. A. Rothenberger, “Local excision of rectal cancer without adjuvant therapy: a word of caution,” Annals of Surgery, vol. 231, no. 3, pp. 345–351, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. R. J. Heald, B. J. Moran, R. D. H. Ryall, R. Sexton, and J. K. MacFarlane, “Rectal Cancer: the Basingstoke experience of total mesorectal excision, 1978–1997,” Archives of Surgery, vol. 133, no. 8, pp. 894–899, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. S. Basu, V. Srivastava, and V. K. Shukla, “Recent advances in the management of carcinoma of the rectum,” Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology, vol. 2, pp. 49–60, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  10. W. B. Perry and J. C. Connaughton, “Abdominoperineal resection: how is it done and what are the results?” Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 213–220, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. E. R. C. Burke and K. Welvaart, “Complications of stapled anastomoses in anterior resection for rectal carcinoma: colorectal anastomosis versus coloanal anastomosis,” Journal of Surgical Oncology, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 180–183, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. R. B. Arenas, A. Fichera, D. Mhoon, and F. Michelassi, “Total mesenteric excision in the surgical treatment of rectal cancer: a prospective study,” Archives of Surgery, vol. 133, no. 6, pp. 608–612, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. E. Van Cutsem, M. Dicato, K. Haustermans et al., “The diagnosis and management of rectal cancer: expert discussion and recommendations derived from the 9th world congress on gastrointestinal cancer, Barcelona, 2007,” Annals of Oncology, vol. 19, no. 6, supplement, pp. vi1–vi8, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. I. L. Nudelman, V. Fuko, A. Geller, E. Fenig, and S. Lelchuk, “Treatment of rectal cancer by chemoradiation followed by surgery: analysis and early clinical outcome in 66 patients,” Israel Medical Association Journal, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 377–380, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. D. E. Beck, C. A. Reickert, D. A. Margolin, C. B. Whitlow, A. E. Timmcke, and T. C. Hicks, “Local recurrence, distant recurrence and survival of rectal cancer,” Ochsner Journal, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 59–63, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. C. S. Shim, “Endoscopic mucosal resectioon,” Journal of Korean Medical Science, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 457–466, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. J. Mannath and K. Ragunath, “Endoscopic mucosal resection: who and how?” Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology, vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 275–282, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  18. H. Ono, H. Kondo, T. Gotoda et al., “Endoscopic mucosal resection for treatment of early gastric cancer,” Gut, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 225–229, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. S. H. Lee, S. W. Jeon, M. K. Jung, S. K. Kim, and G. S. Choi, “A comparison of transanal excision and endoscopic resection for early rectal cancer,” World Journal of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 56–60, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  20. A. Malik, J. D. Mellinger, J. W. Hazey, B. J. Dunkin, and B. V. MacFadyen, “Endoluminal and transluminal surgery: current status and future possibilities,” Surgical Endoscopy and Other Interventional Techniques, vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 1179–1192, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. A. Ahmadi and P. Draganov, “Endoscopic mucosal resection in the upper gastrointestinal tract,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 14, no. 13, pp. 1984–1989, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. S. E. Kudo, H. Kashida, T. Tamura et al., “Colonoscopic diagnosis and management of nonpolypoid early colorectal cancer,” World Journal of Surgery, vol. 24, no. 9, pp. 1081–1090, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. D. P. Hurlstone, D. S. Sanders, S. S. Cross et al., “Colonoscopic resection of lateral spreading tumours: a prospective analysis of endoscopic mucosal resection,” Gut, vol. 53, no. 9, pp. 1334–1339, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. D. P. Hurlstone, S. S. Cross, K. Drew et al., “An evaluation of colorectal endoscopic mucosal resection using high-magnification chromoscopic colonoscopy: a prospective study of 1000 colonoscopies,” Endoscopy, vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 491–498, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. A. Moss, M. J. Bourke, S. J. Williams et al., “Endoscopic mucosal resection outcomes and prediction of submucosal cancer from advanced colonic mucosal neoplasia,” Gastroenterology, vol. 140, no. 7, pp. 1908–1918, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. T. R. Lim, V. Mahesh, S. Singh et al., “Endoscopic mucosal resection of colorectal polyps in typical UK hospitals,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 16, no. 42, pp. 5324–5328, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. S. R. Puli, Y. Kakugawa, T. Gotoda, D. Antillon, Y. Saito, and M. R. Antillon, “Meta-analysis and systematic review of colorectal endoscopic mucosal resection,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 15, no. 34, pp. 4273–4277, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. Santos, E. O. d. Carlos, D. Malaman, and J. C. Pereira-Lima, “Endoscopic mucosal resection in colorectal lesion: a safe and effective procedure even in lesions larger than 2 cm and in carcinomas,” Archives of Gastroenterology, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 242–247, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  29. P. A. Soune, C. Ménard, E. Salah, A. Desjeux, J. C. Grimaud, and M. Barthet, “Large endoscopic mucosal resection for colorectal tumors exceeding 4 cm,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 588–595, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. C. D. Chen, M. F. Yen, W. M. Wang, J. M. Wong, and T. H. H. Chen, “A case-cohort study for the disease natural history of adenoma-carcinoma and de novo carcinoma and surveillance of colon and rectum after polypectomy: implication for efficacy of colonoscopy,” British Journal of Cancer, vol. 88, no. 12, pp. 1866–1873, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. R. M. Barendse et al., “Endoscopic mucosal resection vs transanal endoscopic microsurgery for the treatment of large rectal adenomas2012,” Colorectal Disease, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. e191–e196.
  32. D. P. Hurlstone, D. S. Sanders, S. S. Cross, R. George, A. J. Shorthouse, and S. Brown, “A prospective analysis of extended endoscopic mucosal resection for large rectal villous adenomas: an alternative technique to transanal endoscopic microsurgery,” Colorectal Disease, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 339–344, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. R. Mihai and N. Borley, “Transanal endoscopic microsurgery—impact on the practice of a colorectal surgeon in a district general hospital,” Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England, vol. 87, no. 6, pp. 432–436, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. R. J. Darwood, J. M. D. Wheeler, and N. R. Borley, “Transanal endoscopic microsurgery is a safe and reliable technique even for complex rectal lesions,” British Journal of Surgery, vol. 95, no. 7, pp. 915–918, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. J. S. Moore, P. A. Cataldo, T. Osler, and N. H. Hyman, “Transanal endoscopic microsurgery is more effective than traditional transanal excision for resection of rectal masses,” Diseases of the Colon and Rectum, vol. 51, no. 7, pp. 1026–1030, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. H. Suzuki, K. Furukawa, H. Kan et al., “The role of transanal endoscopic microsurgery for rectal tumors,” Journal of Nippon Medical School, vol. 72, no. 5, pp. 278–284, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. G. Dafnis, L. Påhlman, Y. Raab, U. M. Gustafsson, and W. Graf, “Transanal endoscopic microsurgery: clinical and functional results,” Colorectal Disease, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 336–342, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. D. J. Bentrem, S. Okabe, W. D. Wong et al., “T1 adenocarcinoma of the rectum: transanal excision or radical surgery?” Annals of Surgery, vol. 242, no. 4, pp. 472–479, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. P. Palma, S. Freudenberg, S. Samel, and S. Post, “Transanal endoscopic microsurgery: indications and results after 100 cases,” Colorectal Disease, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 350–355, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. L. Påhlman and M. R. Torkzad, “Rectal cancer staging: is there an optimal method?” Future Oncology, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 93–100, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. R. J. Heald, B. J. Moran, R. D. H. Ryall, R. Sexton, and J. K. MacFarlane, “Rectal Cancer: the Basingstoke experience of total mesorectal excision, 1978–1997,” Archives of Surgery, vol. 133, no. 8, pp. 894–899, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. E. Kapiteijn, H. Putter, and C. J. H. Van De Velde, “Impact of the introduction and training of total mesorectal excision on recurrence and survival in rectal cancer in The Netherlands,” British Journal of Surgery, vol. 89, no. 9, pp. 1142–1149, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. P. Quirke, R. Steele, J. Monson et al., “Effect of the plane of surgery achieved on local recurrence in patients with operable rectal cancer: a prospective study using data from the MRC CR07 and NCIC-CTG CO16 randomised clinical trial,” The Lancet, vol. 373, no. 9666, pp. 821–828, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. S. Stelzner, C. Koehler, J. Stelzer, A. Sims, and H. Witzigmann, “Extended abdominoperineal excision vs. standard abdominoperineal excision in rectal cancer-a systematic overview,” International Journal of Colorectal Disease, vol. 26, no. 10, pp. 1227–1240, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. P. J. Hewett, R. A. Allardyce, P. F. Bagshaw et al., “Short-term outcomes of the australasian randomized clinical study comparing laparoscopic and conventional open surgical treatments for colon cancer: the ALCCaS trial,” Annals of Surgery, vol. 248, no. 5, pp. 728–738, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. “Survival after laparoscopic surgery versus open surgery for colon cancer: long-term outcome of a randomised clinical trial,” The Lancet Oncology, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 44–52, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. J. Fleshman, D. J. Sargent, E. Green et al., “Laparoscopic colectomy for cancer is not inferior to open surgery based on 5-year data from the COST Study Group trial,” Annals of Surgery, vol. 246, no. 4, pp. 655–662, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. D. G. Jayne, H. C. Thorpe, J. Copeland, P. Quirke, J. M. Brown, and P. J. Guillou, “Five-year follow-up of the Medical Research Council CLASICC trial of laparoscopically assisted versus open surgery for colorectal cancer,” British Journal of Surgery, vol. 97, no. 11, pp. 1638–1645, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. K. L. Leung, S. P. Y. Kwok, S. C. W. Lam et al., “Laparoscopic resection of rectosigmoid carcinoma: prospective randomised trial,” The Lancet, vol. 363, no. 9416, pp. 1187–1192, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. S. S. M. Ng, K. L. Leung, J. F. Y. Lee et al., “Laparoscopic-assisted versus open abdominoperineal resection for low rectal cancer: a prospective randomized trial,” Annals of Surgical Oncology, vol. 15, no. 9, pp. 2418–2425, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. S. S. M. Ng, K. L. Leung, J. F. Y. Lee, R. Y. C. Yiu, J. C. M. Li, and S. S. F. Hon, “Long-term morbidity and oncologic outcomes of laparoscopic-assisted anterior resection for upper rectal cancer: ten-year results of a prospective, randomized trial,” Diseases of the Colon and Rectum, vol. 52, no. 4, pp. 558–566, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. S. B. Kang, J. W. Park, S. Y. Jeong et al., “Open versus laparoscopic surgery for mid or low rectal cancer after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (COREAN trial): short-term outcomes of an open-label randomised controlled trial,” The Lancet Oncology, vol. 11, no. 7, pp. 637–645, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. J. Lujan, G. Valero, Q. Hernandez, A. Sanchez, M. D. Frutos, and P. Parrilla, “Randomized clinical trial comparing laparoscopic and open surgery in patients with rectal cancer,” British Journal of Surgery, vol. 96, no. 9, pp. 982–989, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. J. Peng, W. Chen, A. P. Venook et al., “Long-term outcome of early-stage rectal cancer undergoing standard resection and local excision,” Clinical Colorectal Cancer, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 37–41, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. J. E. Krook, C. G. Moertel, L. L. Gunderson et al., “Effective surgical adjuvant therapy for high-risk rectal carcinoma,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 324, no. 11, pp. 709–715, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. B. Fisher, N. Wolmark, H. Rockette et al., “Postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy or radiation therapy for rectal cancer: results from NSABP protocol R-01,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 80, no. 1, pp. 21–29, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. R. Sauer, H. Becker, W. Hohenberger et al., “Preoperative versus postoperative chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 351, no. 17, pp. 1731–1810, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. J. H. Park, S. M. Yoon, C. S. Yu, J. H. Kim, T. W. Kim, and J. C. Kim, “Randomized phase 3 trial comparing preoperative and postoperative chemoradiotherapy with capecitabine for locally advanced rectal cancer,” Cancer, vol. 117, no. 16, pp. 3703–3712, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. K. Bujko, M. P. Nowacki, A. Nasierowska-Guttmejer, W. Michalski, M. Bebenek, and M. Kryj, “Long-term results of a randomized trial comparing preoperative short-course radiotherapy with preoperative conventionally fractionated chemoradiation for rectal cancer,” British Journal of Surgery, vol. 93, no. 10, pp. 1215–1223, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. S. Ngan et al., “A randomized trial comparing local recurrence (LR) rates between short-course (SC) and long-course (LC) preoperative radiotherapy (RT) for clinical T3 rectal cancer: an intergroup trial (TROG, AGITG, CSSANZ, RACS),” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 28, no. 15, supplement, 2010, abstract no. 3509. View at Google Scholar
  61. L. Collette, J. F. Bosset, M. Den Dulk et al., “Patients with curative resection of cT3-4 rectal cancer after preoperative radiotherapy or radiochemotherapy: does anybody benefit from adjuvant fluorouracil-based chemotherapy? A trial of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Radiation Oncology Group,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 25, no. 28, pp. 4379–4386, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. V. Lingareddy, N. R. Ahmad, and M. Mohiuddin, “Palliative reirradiation for recurrent rectal cancer,” International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 785–790, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. W. Rhomberg, H. Eiter, K. Hergan, and B. Schneider, “Inoperable recurrent rectal cancer: results of a prospective trial with radiation therapy and razoxane,” International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 419–425, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. C. S. Wong, B. J. Cummings, J. D. Brierley et al., “Treatment of locally recurrent rectal carcinoma—Results and prognostic factors,” International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 427–435, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. M. Brændengen, K. M. Tveit, A. Berglund et al., “Randomized phase III study comparing preoperative radiotherapy with chemoradiotherapy in nonresectable rectal cancer,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 26, no. 22, pp. 3687–3694, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. V. Valentini, C. Coco, G. Rizzo et al., “Outcomes of clinical T4M0 extra-peritoneal rectal cancer treated with preoperative radiochemotherapy and surgery: a prospective evaluation of a single institutional experience,” Surgery, vol. 145, no. 5, pp. 486–494, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. A. Govindarajan, N. G. Coburn, A. Kiss, L. Rabeneck, A. J. Smith, and C. H. L. Law, “Population-based assessment of the surgical management of locally advanced colorectal cancer,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 98, no. 20, pp. 1474–1481, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. M. G. House, H. Ito, M. Gönen et al., “Survival after hepatic resection for metastatic colorectal cancer: trends in outcomes for 1,600 patients during two decades at a single institution,” Journal of the American College of Surgeons, vol. 210, no. 5, pp. 744–752, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. M. C. de Jong, C. Pulitano, D. Ribero et al., “Rates and patterns of recurrence following curative intent surgery for colorectal liver metastasis: an international multi-institutional analysis of 1669 patients,” Annals of Surgery, vol. 250, no. 3, pp. 440–447, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. Y. Fong, J. Fortner, R. L. Sun, M. F. Brennan, and L. H. Blumgart, “Clinical score for predicting recurrence after hepatic resection for metastatic colorectal cancer: analysis of 1001 consecutive cases,” Annals of Surgery, vol. 230, no. 3, pp. 309–321, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. E. Mitry, B. Guiu, S. Cosconea, V. Jooste, J. Faivre, and A. M. Bouvier, “Epidemiology, management and prognosis of colorectal cancer with lung metastases: a 30-year population-based study,” Gut, vol. 59, no. 10, pp. 1383–1388, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. S. Sadahiro, T. Suzuki, K. Ishikawa et al., “Recurrence patterns after curative resection of colorectal cancer in patients followed for a minimum of ten years,” Hepato-Gastroenterology, vol. 50, no. 53, pp. 1362–1366, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. K. K. Tan, G. D. L. Lopes, and R. Sim, “How uncommon are isolated lung metastases in colorectal cancer? a review from database of 754 patients over 4 years,” Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 642–648, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. J. Pfannschmidt, H. Dienemann, and H. Hoffmann, “Surgical resection of pulmonary metastases from colorectal cancer: a systematic review of published series,” Annals of Thoracic Surgery, vol. 84, no. 1, pp. 324–338, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. T. Treasure, L. Fallowfield, B. Lees, and V. Farewell, “Pulmonary metastasectomy in colorectal cancer: the PulMiCC trial,” Thorax, vol. 67, no. 2, pp. 185–187, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. V. J. Verwaal, S. Van Ruth, E. De Bree et al., “Randomized trial of cytoreduction and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy versus systemic chemotherapy and palliative surgery in patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis of colorectal cancer,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 21, no. 20, pp. 3737–3743, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. D. Elias et al., “Peritoneal colorectal carcinomatosis treated with surgery and perioperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy: retrospective analysis of 523 patients from a multicentric French study,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 63–68, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  78. O. Glehen, F. Kwiatkowski, P. H. Sugarbaker et al., “Cytoreductive surgery combined with perioperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy for the management of peritoneal carcinomatosis from colorectal cancer: a multi-institutional study,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 22, no. 16, pp. 3284–3292, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus