Table 1: Included studies.

PMIDFirst authorCountryPublication yearRCT typePOPF definition

26135690KeckGermany2016Multicenter, randomized, controlled, observer- and patient-blinded trialISGPS (grade B/C)

25799130GrendarCanada2015Single-center, randomized, controlled trialRadiologically proven anastomotic leak or continued drainage of lipase-rich fluid on PoD 10. Classification by ISGPS

24467711El NakeebEgypt2014Single-center, prospective, randomized studyISGPS (grade A/B/C)

24264781FiguerasSpain2013Multicenter, prospective, randomized studyISGPS (grade B/C)

23643139TopalBelgium2013Multicenter, randomised, superiority trialISGPS (grade B/C)

22744638WellnerGermany2012Single-center, open, randomized, controlled studyISGPS (grade B/C)

19092337Fernàndez-CruzSpain2008Single-center, prospective, randomized studyISGPS (grade B/C)

16327486BassiItaly2005Single-center, prospective, randomized studyAny clinical significant output of fluid, rich in amylase, confirmed by fistulography

15910726DuffasFrance2005Multicenter, single blind, controlled, randomized trialFluid obtained through drains or percutaneous aspiration, containing at least 4 times normal serum values of amylase for 3 days or as anastomotic leaks shown by fistulography

7574936YeoUSA1995Single-center, prospective, randomized trialDrainage of greater than 50 mL of amylase rich fluid (greater than threefold elevation above upper limit of normal in serum) through the operatively placed drains on or after