Antecedents of Intention to Adopt Mobile Health (mHealth) Application and Its Impact on Intention to Recommend: An Evidence from Indonesian CustomersRead the full article
International Journal of Telemedicine and Applications focuses on the applications of medical practice and care at a distance and their supporting technologies such as, computing, communications, and networking technologies.
International Journal of Telemedicine and Applications maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
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Telerehabilitation Using Fitness Application in Patients with Severe Cystic Fibrosis Awaiting Lung Transplant: A Pilot Study
Purpose. The purpose of this study was to pilot a home-based pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) program administered via a telemedicine approach using a combination of fitness application and self-selected activity in lung transplant candidates with cystic fibrosis (CF). Methods. We recruited adult patients with CF. The main outcome was adherence, measured by number of sessions completed in 12 weeks. Secondary outcomes were adverse events, six-minute walk distance (6MWD), and dyspnea. Participants were provided a personalized exercise program and equipment including a fitness application that provided exercise videos, recorded exercise time, and corresponding heart rate. We reviewed data daily and provided text messages with feedback. We compared our study outcomes to a retrospective data set of CF patients who participated in a 24-session outpatient hospital-based PR program. Data presented as . Results. Eleven patients participated in the home PR program, 45% female, age , FEV1 predicted. Sessions completed were home-based PR vs. hospital-based PR, . Fifty percent of the home-based group completed ≥24 sessions in 12 weeks versus 0% of the hospital-based patients (). There were no adverse events during exercise. Completers of the home-based program demonstrated a clinically meaningful lower decline in 6 MWD than noncompleters (6MWD vs. ). Only one participant performed a post 6 MWD in the hospital-based PR. Conclusion. Patients with severe CF demonstrated adherence to home PR delivered using fitness application and self-selected activity with no adverse events. This program style may be a viable solution for telerehabilitation in severe CF and is particularly relevant in the COVID era.
Teledentistry: A Boon Amidst COVID-19 Lockdown—A Narrative Review
The recent spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its associated coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has caused widespread public health concerns. Despite huge efforts to contain the disease spread, it is still on the rise because of the community spread pattern of this infection. In order to prevent the community spread, a nationwide lockdown was implemented, due to which many restrictions were imposed on movements of citizens within the country. Since the dental professionals were at the forefront of acquiring the infection, the majority of the dental clinics were shut for routine dental procedures. Only emergency treatment was provided to the patients. However, due to restrictions in movement, it was difficult for the patients to visit the clinics for routine check-ups. This was overcome by the advancements in technology which has a major impact on medicine. Due to increased usage of smartphones and related software applications, the clinical data exchange was facilitated between patients and clinicians which has been termed as “teledentistry.” Teledentistry is a combination of telecommunications and dentistry, involving the exchange of clinical information and images for dental consultation and treatment planning. This technology served as a boon for the dentists to manage dental emergencies during the lockdown period. This narrative review discusses teledentistry and its applications in general and specialty dental practice amidst the COVID-19 lockdown.
Caregiver’s Opinions on the Design of the Screens of a Future Gamified Mobile Application for Self-Management of Type 1 Diabetes in Children in Saudi Arabia
The objective of this study was to design the screens of a future gamified mobile application for self-management of type 1 diabetes in children based on the opinion of caregivers at the King Fahad Hospital Diabetes Center, Saudi Arabia. To achieve this objective, a questionnaire was designed and distributed among 100 caregivers through face-to-face communication and social media using a Google Forms link. 65% of the participants met the inclusion criteria. The main result of this study was the design of 13 screens of a gamified application for self-management of type 1 diabetes in children from Saudi Arabia. The key features of the screens were caring for a character; using a challenging friend; inclusion of points, level, and leaderboard as rewarding principles; use of reminders and notifications for doctor’s appointments, insulin injection times, blood glucose readings; and tips for improving medication adherence, increasing blood glucose readings, supporting physical activities, and adopting healthy eating habits. It can be concluded that the practical implementation of the screens in a future mobile application can motivate children with type 1 diabetes to improve eating habits, physical exercise, and cognitive, emotional, and social behaviors to maintain a stable state of health. Also, the content of the designed screens can help to monitor blood glucose readings and comply with medication treatment. The designed screens are adapted to the Arab culture.
The Recent Progress and Applications of Digital Technologies in Healthcare: A Review
Background. The implementation of medical digital technologies can provide better accessibility and flexibility of healthcare for the public. It encompasses the availability of open information on the health, treatment, complications, and recent progress on biomedical research. At present, even in low-income countries, diagnostic and medical services are becoming more accessible and available. However, many issues related to digital health technologies remain unmet, including the reliability, safety, testing, and ethical aspects. Purpose. The aim of the review is to discuss and analyze the recent progress on the application of big data, artificial intelligence, telemedicine, block-chain platforms, smart devices in healthcare, and medical education. Basic Design. The publication search was carried out using Google Scholar, PubMed, Web of Sciences, Medline, Wiley Online Library, and CrossRef databases. The review highlights the applications of artificial intelligence, “big data,” telemedicine and block-chain technologies, and smart devices (internet of things) for solving the real problems in healthcare and medical education. Major Findings. We identified 252 papers related to the digital health area. However, the number of papers discussed in the review was limited to 152 due to the exclusion criteria. The literature search demonstrated that digital health technologies became highly sought due to recent pandemics, including COVID-19. The disastrous dissemination of COVID-19 through all continents triggered the need for fast and effective solutions to localize, manage, and treat the viral infection. In this regard, the use of telemedicine and other e-health technologies might help to lessen the pressure on healthcare systems. Summary. Digital platforms can help optimize diagnosis, consulting, and treatment of patients. However, due to the lack of official regulations and recommendations, the stakeholders, including private and governmental organizations, are facing the problem with adequate validation and approbation of novel digital health technologies. In this regard, proper scientific research is required before a digital product is deployed for the healthcare sector.
Passive Observer of Activities for Aging in Place Using a Network of RGB-D Sensors
Aging in place is a notion which supports the independent living of older adults at their own place of residence for as long as possible. To support this alternative living which can be in contrast to various other types of assisted living options, modes of monitoring technology need to be explored and studied in order to determine a balance between the preservation of privacy and adequacy of sensed information for better estimation and visualization of movements and activities. In this paper, we explore such monitoring paradigm on how a network of RGB-D sensors can be utilized for this purpose. This type of sensor offers both visual and depth sensing modalities from the scene where the information can be fused and coded for better protection of privacy. For this purpose, we introduce the novel notion of passive observer. This observer is only triggered by detecting the absence of movements of older adults in the scene. This is accomplished by classifying and localizing objects in the monitoring scene from both before and after the detection of movements. A deep learning tool is utilized for visual classification of known objects in the physical scene followed by virtual reality reconstructing of the scene where the shape and location of objects are recreated. Such reconstruction can be used as a visual summary in order to identify objects which were handled by an older adult in-between observation. The simplified virtual scene can be used, for example, by caregivers or monitoring personnel in order to assist in detecting any anomalies. This virtual visualization can offer a high level of privacy protection without having any direct visual access to the monitoring scene. In addition, using the scene graph representation, an automatic decision-making tool is proposed where spatial relationships between the objects can be used to estimate the expected activities. The results of this paper are demonstrated through two case studies.
Design and Development of Diabetes Management System Using Machine Learning
This paper describes the design and implementation of a software system to improve the management of diabetes using a machine learning approach and to demonstrate and evaluate its effectiveness in controlling diabetes. The proposed approach for this management system handles the various factors that affect the health of people with diabetes by combining multiple artificial intelligence algorithms. The proposed framework factors the diabetes management problem into subgoals: building a Tensorflow neural network model for food classification; thus, it allows users to upload an image to determine if a meal is recommended for consumption; implementing K-Nearest Neighbour (KNN) algorithm to recommend meals; using cognitive sciences to build a diabetes question and answer chatbot; tracking user activity, user geolocation, and generating pdfs of logged blood sugar readings. The food recognition model was evaluated with cross-entropy metrics that support validation using Neural networks with a backpropagation algorithm. The model learned features of the images fed from local Ghanaian dishes with specific nutritional value and essence in managing diabetics and provided accurate image classification with given labels and corresponding accuracy. The model achieved specified goals by predicting with high accuracy, labels of new images. The food recognition and classification model achieved over 95% accuracy levels for specific calorie intakes. The performance of the meal recommender model and question and answer chatbot was tested with a designed cross-platform user-friendly interface using Cordova and Ionic Frameworks for software development for both mobile and web applications. The system recommended meals to meet the calorific needs of users successfully using KNN (with ) and answered questions asked in a human-like way. The implemented system would solve the problem of managing activity, dieting recommendations, and medication notification of diabetics.