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International Journal of Telemedicine and Applications
Volume 2008, Article ID 639019, 15 pages
Review Article

A Survey of Insulin-Dependent Diabetes—Part I: Therapies and Devices

1Department of Computer Science, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487-0290, USA
2Department of Computer Engineering, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY 14623-5603, USA

Received 17 August 2007; Accepted 14 November 2007

Academic Editor: Jelena Misic

Copyright © 2008 Daisuke Takahashi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This paper surveys diabetes therapies from telemedicine viewpoint. In type 1 diabetes therapies, the exogenous insulin replacement is generally considered as a primary treatment. However, the complete replacement of exogenous insulin is still a challenging issue because of its complexity of modeling the dynamics, which is typically modeled nonlinearly. On the other hand, thanks to the progress of medical devices, currently the diabetes therapies are being automated. These medical devices include automated insulin pumps and blood glucose sensors. Insulin pumps are designed to create artificial insulin perfusion while they largely rely on the blood glucose profile measurements and these measurements are achieved by one or more blood glucose sensors. The blood glucose measurements are also important for the insulin-dependent diabetes therapies. An insulin pump along with sensors establishes a good feedback system providing the appropriate amount of the exogenous insulin on demand. Controlling the amount of exogenous insulin to suppress the blood glucose levels requires complicated computations. This paper mostly explains both type 1 and 2 diabetes and their mechanisms accompanied by descriptions of diabetes therapy and medical devices currently utilized in the therapy.