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International Journal of Vascular Medicine publishes articles focusing on vascular biology and physiology, vascular imaging, endovascular intervention, as well as prevention and treatment of vascular disease.
International Journal of Vascular Medicine maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
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Beneficial Effects of Spirulina Aqueous Extract on Vasodilator Function of Arteries from Hypertensive Rats
Hypertension is a multifactorial disorder considered one of the major causes of premature death worldwide. This pathology is associated with vascular functional/structural alterations in which nitric oxide (NO) and oxygen reactive species participate. On the other hand, the use of microalgae extracts in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases is increasing. Based on the antioxidant and antihypertensive properties of Spirulina, this study aims to investigate the effect of an aqueous extract of Spirulina on the vasodilator function of the aorta from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), analyzing the functional role of NO. For this, aortic segments from male SHR were divided into two groups, one control and the other exposed to an Spirulina aqueous extract (0.1% w/v, for 3 hours), to analyze (i) the production of NO, superoxide anion, and hydrogen peroxide; (ii) the vasodilator response induced by acetylcholine (ACh), by the NO donor and sodium nitroprusside (SNP), and by the KATP channel opener and pinacidil; and (iii) the expression of the p-Akt, p-eNOS, and HO-1 proteins. The results showed that the aqueous Spirulina extract (i) increased the production of NO, did not significantly modify that of superoxide, while decreased that of hydrogen peroxide; (ii) increased the vasodilatory responses induced by ACh, NPS, and pinacidil; and (iii) increased the expression of p-Akt and HO-1. These results suggest that incubation with the aqueous Spirulina extract improves the vascular function of arteries from SHR by increasing the release/bioavailability/function of NO. Increased KATP channel activation and expression of pAkt and HO-1 appear to be participating in these actions.
Comparing and Correlating Outcomes between Open and Percutaneous Access in Endovascular Aneurysm Repair in Aortic Aneurysms Using a Retrospective Cohort Study Design
Objective. This retrospective cohort study is aimed at determining the safety and efficacy between Femoral Open-Cutdown access and Percutaneous access with Endovascular Aneurysm Repair (EVAR) by contrasting perioperative complication rates. We hypothesized that the percutaneous approach is a better alternative for aortic aneurysm patients as it is minimally invasive and has been demonstrated to decrease the length of hospital stay. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed data for patients undergoing EVAR between the years of 2005 and 2013. We then compared overall mortality, hematoma or seroma formation, graft infection, arterio-venous injury, distal embolization, limb loss, myocardial infarction or arrhythmia, and renal dysfunction. Results were demonstrated using a retrospective cohort study design to confirm the hematoma rate associated with EVAR open compared to percutaneous access. Results. Our series involves 73 patients who underwent percutaneous access for EVAR () or traditional open cutdown (). Percutaneous access resulted in significantly less hematoma formation when compared to the traditional open cutdown (4% vs. 12.5%; ). Our analysis suggests decreased mortality rates associated with EVAR as compared to the Open-Cutdown method using Northside Medical Center’s Study and the OVER Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study (). Conclusion. Percutaneous access for EVAR is safe and effective when compared to Open-Cutdown access for aortic aneurysm patients. Percutaneous access was associated with decreased rates of in-hospital mortality, hematoma formation, graft infection, and respiratory failure.
Interesting Scenarios during Radiofrequency Ablation of Varicose Veins at University Hospital of Nepal
A varicose vein is a common venous condition which affects the great saphenous vein and small saphenous vein causing symptoms of pain, edema, itchiness, pigmentation, and ulceration. There are various modalities of the treatment of varicose veins; however, radiofrequency ablation is among the tested and proven treatments for varicose veins. With every case, there can be some unexpected or interesting scenarios which can pose both technical and surgical difficulties. The main objective of this paper is to introduce these scenarios which can occur despite following the standard protocol and methods both preoperatively and intraoperatively. In these scenarios, the surgeon quickly need to decide how to deal with the aberrations. Based on extensive literature and consensus of a team of three vascular surgeons, lists of interesting scenarios were prepared along with their definition. Any occurrences of such scenarios were noted in the operation theatre note. Here, we describe 39 (6.38%) interesting cases among 611 cases of radiofrequency ablation that was performed in Dhulikhel Hospital, Kathmandu University Hospital, from January 2014 until December 2019. Despite following the proper protocol, we can face many unexpected challenges preoperatively, peroperatively, and postoperatively. From this article, we concluded that vigilance of all the factors and proper Doppler ultrasonography can help in identifying most of these scenarios and aid in making proper surgical planning.
Evaluation of the Correlation between Serum Concentrations of Asymmetric Dimethylarginine and Corrected TIMI Frame Count in Patients with Slow Coronary Flow
Coronary slow flow (CSF) is an important angiographic entity that is characterized by delayed opacification of coronary arteries in the absence of epicardial occlusive disease. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. Elevated levels of ADMA cause the induction of endothelial dysfunction and thus promote atherosclerosis. This study was aimed at determining the role of ADMA in the development of CSF. One hundred twenty-nine subjects who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were enrolled in this study. According to coronary angiography results, these subjects were divided into five groups. The serum concentration of ADMA was measured in these subjects. In this study, there was no significant correlation between serum concentrations of ADMA and mean corrected TIMI frame count (CTFC) (). However, the ADMA level was significantly correlated with CTFC in the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery in patients with CSF (, ). Also, plasma ADMA levels were significantly higher in patients with CSF and without CAD compared to patients without CSF and with CAD (50-90%) (). Besides, serum concentrations of ADMA were significantly higher in subjects with kg/m2 compared with those having kg/m2 (). It was also shown that the levels of ADMA were significantly higher in subjects with age as a cardiovascular risk factor compared with those without this risk factor (). Further studies with larger population sizes are needed to confirm the present findings on the association between the serum concentrations of ADMA and CSF.
Three-Dimensional Echocardiography in Evaluating LA Volumes and Functions in Diabetic Normotensive Patients without Symptomatic Cardiovascular Disease
Background. Cardiovascular complications are the most serious threat to diabetic patients. Associated metabolic and microvascular changes are the main cause of cardiac function affection, and the earliest cardiac change is diastolic dysfunction. Assessment of LA function changes is a key to determine early heart damage of diabetic patients. Objectives. To evaluate the effect of diabetes mellitus on left atrial volumes and functions by using real-time 3-dimensional echocardiography in normotensive patients free from cardiovascular disease. Methods. The study included 110 individuals, 50 controls and 60 patients with diabetes mellitus, 30 patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and 30 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. 2-dimensional echocardiography was used to assess the LA maximum volume and LA phasic volumes, and LA maximum volume indexed to body surface area were measured by 3D echocardiography. LA functions (LA total stroke volume, LA active stroke volume, and LA active emptying fraction) were obtained from RT3D volumetric analysis. Results. The results of the analysis revealed that type 2 diabetes mellitus showed enlarged , , and LAVi with an increased LA total stroke volume and decreased active emptying fraction, while type 1 diabetics showed only decreased in active emptying fraction. The LA maximum volume indexed to body surface area (LAVi) was significantly higher in type 2 diabetic patients as compared to normal controls which was versus 20.30. Conclusion. Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus have an increased LA volume with impaired compliance and contractility, while patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus have only impaired contractility compared to nondiabetic subjects.
Serum Endothelin-1 Correlates with Myocardial Injury and Independently Predicts Adverse Cardiac Events in Non-ST-Elevation Acute Myocardial Infarction
Introduction. Serum endothelin-1 is increasingly released in acute myocardial infarction, by necrotic cardiomyocytes. In non-ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction (Non-STEMI), increased serum endothelin-1 on-admission may have clinical significance during acute hospitalisation events. Objective. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether increased serum endothelin-1 level predict adverse cardiac events in patients hospitalized with Non-STEMI. Methods. The design of this research was a prospective cohort study. Consecutive subjects with Non-STEMI undergoing symptom onset ≤24 hour were enrolled and observed during intensive hospitalization. Serum endothelin-1, troponin-I, and hs-C reactive protein were measured from peripheral blood taken on-admission. In-hospital adverse cardiac events were a composite of death, acute heart failure, cardiogenic shock, reinfarction, and resuscitated VT/VF. Results. We enrolled 66 subjects. The incidence of in-hospital adverse cardiac events is 13.6% (10 out of 66 subjects). Serum endothelin-1 level was significantly higher in subjects with in-hospital adverse cardiac events. Subjects with endothelin-1 level >2.59 pg/mL independently predicted adverse cardiac events in hospitalised Non-STEMI patients (adjusted odds ratio 44.43, 95% confidence interval: 1.44-1372.99, value 0.03). The serum endothelin-1 level was correlated with serum troponin I level (correlation coefficient of 0.413, value 0.012). Conclusion. Increased serum endothelin-1 on-admission correlated with increased troponin-I and independently predicted in-hospital adverse cardiac events in patients with Non-STEMI.