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International Journal of Vascular Medicine publishes articles focusing on vascular biology and physiology, vascular imaging, endovascular intervention, as well as prevention and treatment of vascular disease.
International Journal of Vascular Medicine maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
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Comparative Evaluation of Efficacy and Safety of the Diode Laser (980 nm) and Sclerotherapy in the Treatment of Oral Vascular Malformations
Background. Vascular malformations are structural abnormalities which are formed by progressively enlarging aberrant and ecstatic vessels without endothelial cell proliferation and composed of the type of vessel involved, i.e., capillary, veins, and arteriovenous. Treatment of vascular malformations may involve many techniques like sclerotherapy, embolization, surgical resection, cryotherapy, laser treatment, or medical therapy. This observational prospective study is aimed at evaluating and comparing the effects and efficacy of diode laser and sclerotherapy in the treatment of oral vascular malformation. Materials and Methods. 40 patients presenting with oral vascular malformation were included in the present study. The patients were divided equally (20 in each) into two groups, i.e., the laser group and sclerotherapy group. Sclerotherapy was performed with 3% sodium tetradecyl sulfate while the laser group was treated with diode laser 980 nm with transmucosal thermophotocoagulation. The patients were assessed for the response, remission, and side effects. The results obtained were tabulated and compared with the chi-square test. Results. Side effects were found significantly lesser in the laser group compared to the sclerotherapy group (). Statistically significant difference was seen for postoperative pain between two groups. The laser group had mild to moderate pain compared to severe pain in the sclerotherapy group. Recurrence was observed more in the laser group compared to the sclerotherapy group. Conclusions. Laser and sclerotherapy with 3% sodium tetradecyl sulfate both are effective in the treatment of vascular malformations. Diode laser seems to be better than sclerotherapy given lesser side effects and comfort to the patients while sclerotherapy seems to be better in respect to recurrences.
Electronic Cigarette and Atherosclerosis: A Comprehensive Literature Review of Latest Evidences
Coronary artery diseases (CAD), also known as coronary heart disease (CHD), are the world’s leading cause of death. The basis of coronary artery disease is the narrowing of the heart coronary artery lumen due to atherosclerosis. The use of electronic cigarettes has increased significantly over the years. However, harmful effects of electronic cigarettes are still not firm. The aim of this article is to review the impact of electronic cigarette and its role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis from recent studies. The results showed that several chemical compounds, such as nicotine, propylene glycol, particulate matters, heavy metals, and flavorings, in electronic cigarette induce atherosclerosis with each molecular mechanism that lead to atherosclerosis progression by formation of ROS, endothelial dysfunction, and inflammation. Further research is still needed to determine the exact mechanism and provide more clinical evidence.
Potential Reduction in Adverse Events and Cost with Novel Anticoagulants among Patients with Acute Limb Ischemia
Background. Acute limb ischemia (ALI) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Novel anticoagulants reduce adverse events among patients with peripheral artery disease, though the potential effect of these therapies is unclear in patients with ALI. The present study thus sought to evaluate the potential clinical benefit of universal application of novel anticoagulants to a high-risk population of patients with ALI. Methods. In this retrospective cohort study, we identified patients diagnosed with ALI in the Veterans Affairs Healthcare System between 2015 and 2016. We then calculated the incidence of adverse cardiovascular events (death/stroke/myocardial infarction/amputation/repeat intervention) as if they were treated with rivaroxaban using published data. Further, we calculated the cost to treat a Veteran diagnosed with one of these outcomes, and the potential savings had patients been universally treated with novel anticoagulants. Results. We identified 286 patients that presented with lower extremity ALI and were not treated with anticoagulation. Potential treatment of these patients with rivaroxaban resulted in significantly fewer adverse events, with an 11.9% reduction in cases at 21 months (95% CI: 5.5-17.8%) and a 13.4% reduction in cases at 47 months (95% CI: 5.6-20.5%). This corresponded to significant decreases in healthcare spending for patients with ALI who were treated with rivaroxaban. Conclusions. Among patients with ALI, treatment with rivaroxaban could result in a significant reduction in adverse cardiovascular events. The reduction in events would in turn lead to significant decreases in healthcare spending for this population.
One-Year Clinical Outcome in Middle Eastern Patients with Atrial Fibrillation: The Jordan Atrial Fibrillation (JoFib) Study
Background. Prevention of stroke and systemic embolism (SE) prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) has radically changed in recent years. Data on contemporary utilization of oral anticoagulants (OACs) and cardiovascular outcome in Middle Eastern patients with AF are needed. Methods. The Jordan atrial fibrillation (JoFib) study enrolled consecutive patients with AF in Jordan from May 2019 through October 2020 and were followed up for one year after enrollment. Results. Overall, 2020 patients were enrolled. The mean age was years. Nonvalvular (NVAF) was diagnosed in 1849 (91.5%) patients. OACs were used in 85.7% of high-risk patients with NVAF (CHA2DS2-VASc score>3 in women, and>2 in men), including direct OACs (DOACs) in 64.1% and vitamin K antagonists (VKA) in 35.9%. Adherence rate to the use of the same OAC agent was 90.6% of patients. One-year cardiovascular (CV) mortality was 7.8%, stroke/SE was 4.5%, and major bleeding events were 2.6%. Independent predictors for all-cause mortality in patients with NVAF were age>75 years, heart failure, major bleeding event, type 2 diabetes mellitus, study enrollment as an in-patient, and coronary heart disease. The use of OACs was associated with lower all-cause mortality. The strongest independent predictors for stroke/SE were high-risk CHA2DS2-VASc score and prior history of stroke. Conclusions. This study of Middle Eastern AF patients has reported high adherence to OACs. The use of OACs was associated with a lower risk for all-cause mortality. One-year rates of stroke and major bleeding events were comparable to those reported from other regions in the world.
High Frequency of Microvascular Dysfunction in US Outpatient Clinics: A Sign of High Residual Risk? Data from 7,105 Patients
Previous studies have linked peripheral microvascular dysfunction measured by arterial tonometry to high residual risk in on-statin patients. Digital thermal monitoring (DTM) of microvascular function is a new and simplified technique based on fingertip temperature measurements that has been correlated with the burden of atherosclerosis and its risk factors. Here, we report analyses of DTM data from two large US registries: Registry-I (6,084 cases) and Registry-II (1,021 cases) across 49 US outpatient clinics. DTM tests were performed using a VENDYS device during a 5-minute arm-cuff reactive hyperemia. Fingertip temperature falls during cuff inflation and rebounds after deflation. Adjusted maximum temperature rebound was reported as vascular reactivity index (VRI). VRI distributions were similar in both registries, with of in Registry-I and in Registry-II. In the combined dataset, only 18% had optimal VRI (≥2.0) and 82% were either poor (<1.0) or intermediate (1.0-2.0). Women had slightly higher VRI than men ( vs. , ). VRI was inversely but mildly correlated with age (, ). Suboptimal VRI was found in 72% of patients <50 years, 82% of 50-70 years, and 86% of ≥70 years. Blood pressure was not correlated with VRI. In this largest registry of peripheral microvascular function measurements, suboptimal scores were highly frequent among on-treatment patients, possibly suggesting a significant residual risk. Prospective studies are warranted to validate microvascular dysfunction as an indicator of residual risk.
Healthcare Practitioners’ Knowledge of Lymphedema
Objectives. Lymphedema is neglected in medical education, and a review on healthcare practitioners’ (HCPs) knowledge is necessary to shed light on gaps and to provide evidence for establishing educational programs on lymphedema. Methods. This systematic review was performed based on the PRISMA guideline in PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases. There was no limitation on the type of lymphedema or HCPs. The quality assessment was performed based on QATSDD. Data regarding study characteristics, questionnaire context, and findings of the study were summarized from each article. Results. After the screening, 16 articles were included that 12 were cross-sectional, two were qualitative, and two were interventional pilot studies. Breast cancer and other cancer-related lymphedema, lymphatic filariasis, and podoconiosis were included, and the majority of articles were focused on primary HCPs. The overall knowledge was low and average in five and 11 articles, respectively, and prior education was a significant factor related to higher knowledge of lymphedema in two studies. Conclusion. Structured education of lymphedema is needed to increase the knowledge of HCPs and to enhance their collaboration in multidisciplinary care teams. Improvement of HCPs’ knowledge may lead to better outcomes of lymphedema patients’ management which are neglected.