International Journal of Vascular Medicine
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One-Year Clinical Outcome in Middle Eastern Patients with Atrial Fibrillation: The Jordan Atrial Fibrillation (JoFib) Study

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 Journal profile

International Journal of Vascular Medicine publishes articles focusing on vascular biology and physiology, vascular imaging, endovascular intervention, as well as prevention and treatment of vascular disease.

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International Journal of Vascular Medicine maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.

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Research Article

High Frequency of Microvascular Dysfunction in US Outpatient Clinics: A Sign of High Residual Risk? Data from 7,105 Patients

Previous studies have linked peripheral microvascular dysfunction measured by arterial tonometry to high residual risk in on-statin patients. Digital thermal monitoring (DTM) of microvascular function is a new and simplified technique based on fingertip temperature measurements that has been correlated with the burden of atherosclerosis and its risk factors. Here, we report analyses of DTM data from two large US registries: Registry-I (6,084 cases) and Registry-II (1,021 cases) across 49 US outpatient clinics. DTM tests were performed using a VENDYS device during a 5-minute arm-cuff reactive hyperemia. Fingertip temperature falls during cuff inflation and rebounds after deflation. Adjusted maximum temperature rebound was reported as vascular reactivity index (VRI). VRI distributions were similar in both registries, with of in Registry-I and in Registry-II. In the combined dataset, only 18% had optimal VRI (≥2.0) and 82% were either poor (<1.0) or intermediate (1.0-2.0). Women had slightly higher VRI than men ( vs. , ). VRI was inversely but mildly correlated with age (, ). Suboptimal VRI was found in 72% of patients <50 years, 82% of 50-70 years, and 86% of ≥70 years. Blood pressure was not correlated with VRI. In this largest registry of peripheral microvascular function measurements, suboptimal scores were highly frequent among on-treatment patients, possibly suggesting a significant residual risk. Prospective studies are warranted to validate microvascular dysfunction as an indicator of residual risk.

Review Article

Healthcare Practitioners’ Knowledge of Lymphedema

Objectives. Lymphedema is neglected in medical education, and a review on healthcare practitioners’ (HCPs) knowledge is necessary to shed light on gaps and to provide evidence for establishing educational programs on lymphedema. Methods. This systematic review was performed based on the PRISMA guideline in PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases. There was no limitation on the type of lymphedema or HCPs. The quality assessment was performed based on QATSDD. Data regarding study characteristics, questionnaire context, and findings of the study were summarized from each article. Results. After the screening, 16 articles were included that 12 were cross-sectional, two were qualitative, and two were interventional pilot studies. Breast cancer and other cancer-related lymphedema, lymphatic filariasis, and podoconiosis were included, and the majority of articles were focused on primary HCPs. The overall knowledge was low and average in five and 11 articles, respectively, and prior education was a significant factor related to higher knowledge of lymphedema in two studies. Conclusion. Structured education of lymphedema is needed to increase the knowledge of HCPs and to enhance their collaboration in multidisciplinary care teams. Improvement of HCPs’ knowledge may lead to better outcomes of lymphedema patients’ management which are neglected.

Review Article

A Review of Risk Factors and Predictors for Hemorrhagic Transformation in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke

Acute ischemic strokes (AIS) and hemorrhagic strokes lead to disabling neuropsychiatric and cognitive deficits. A serious and fatal complication of AIS is the occurrence of hemorrhagic transformation (HT). HT is cerebral bleeding that occurs after an ischemic event in the infarcted areas. This review summarises how specific risk factors such as demographic factors like age, gender, and race/ethnicity, comorbidities including essential hypertension, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, congestive heart failure, and ischemic heart disease along with predictors like higher NIHSS score, larger infarction size, cardioembolic strokes, systolic blood pressure/pulse pressure variability, higher plasma glucose levels, and higher body temperature during ischemic event, lower low-density lipoprotein and total cholesterol, early ischemic changes on imaging modalities, and some rare causes make an individual more susceptible to developing HT. We also discuss few other risk factors such as the role of blood-brain barrier, increased arterial stiffness, and globulin levels in patients postreperfusion using thrombolysis and mechanical thrombectomy. In addition, we discuss the implications of dual antiplatelet therapy and the length of treatment in reference to the incidence of developing HT. Current research into inflammatory mediators and biomarkers such as Cyclooxygenase-2, matrix metalloproteinases, and soluble ST2 and their potential role as treatment options for HT is also briefly discussed. Finally, this review calls for more research into use of dual antiplatelet and the timing of antiplatelet and anticoagulant use in reference to hemorrhagic transformation.

Review Article

Segmental Arterial Mediolysis: A Multiguised Vasospastic Arteriopathy with Collateral Mesangial Cell Hyperplasia and Cardiac Toxicity Generated by Norepinephrine and Hyperdense Adrenoceptors Alone or by Crosstalk with Other Pressor Agents

Segmental arterial mediolysis (SAM), an uncommon vasospastic arteriopathy occurring in the muscular arteries innervated by the peripheral sympathetic nervous system, usually presents with catastrophic abdominal and retroperitoneal hemorrhages in elderly patients. SAM is initiated by the coupling of norepinephrine to plastically derived hyperdense foci of alpha-1 adrenergic receptors on the sarcolemma of arterial muscle. This ligand is created by stimuli signaled by iatrogenic sympathomimetic agonists, some beta-2 agonists, or an excessive release of adrenal catecholamines. Coupling of this ligand with cytoplasmic heterotrimeric Gq protein excessively signals a cascade of biochemical events generating two principal lesions of injurious-phase SAM—the shearing of the outer media from the adventitia and an overload of cytoplasmic calcium ions toxic to mitochondria causing mediolysis and/or apoptosis. The massive hemorrhages are caused by ruptured gap aneurysms created by the transmedial loss of the medial muscle. A norepinephrine-directed reparative response rapidly develops either resolving angiographic injurious lesions or creating a body of vascular disorders, the new guises of SAM with ischemic clinical profiles. These present in the epicardial, vertebral, intestinal, and retroperitoneal arteries, often in younger females as fibromuscular dysplasia, dissecting hematomas, and persistent aneurysms. Norepinephrine can crosstalk with other pressor agents to create SAM lesions—serotonin with idiopathic pulmonary hypertension and persistent pulmonary hypertension in the newborn, histamine in spontaneous coronary artery dissections with eosinophilia, and endothelin-1 in a field effect generated by SAM that creates venous fibromuscular dysplasia. Norepinephrine also participates in the collateral development of mesangial hyperplasia with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and myocardial mediolysis and apoptosis in subjects with markedly elevated heart rates. Conclusion. Norepinephrine coupling with plastically elevated alpha-1 adrenoceptor or other pressor agents generates SAM, a histologically recognizable vasospastic arteriopathy, that with repair is transformed into several different standardized arterial diseases that alter SAM’s clinical profile from a hemorrhagic to an ischemic disorder.

Research Article

Use of the AFX Stent Graft in Patients with Extremely Narrow Aortic Bifurcation: A Multicenter Retrospective Study

Introduction. This study analyzed the patient outcomes following endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) for infrarenal aortic pathologies with very narrow aortic bifurcations using the AFX stent graft. Methods. The data was retrieved from the archived medical records of 35 patients treated for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) (48.6%) or penetrating aortic ulcer (PAU) (51.4%) with very narrow aortic bifurcation between January 2013 and May 2020. Patient survival, freedom from endoleak (EL), and limb occlusion were estimated applying the Kaplan–Meier method. Results. The mean follow-up time was months. The mean aortic bifurcation diameter was . Technical success was 100%, and no procedure-related deaths occurred. Two type II ELs occurred within 30-day follow-up. We observed one common iliac artery stenosis at four months and one type III EL at 54 months in the same patient, both of which required re-intervention. Overall patient survival was (AAA: 100%; PAU: ), freedom from limb occlusion was (AAA: ; PAU: 100%), freedom from type II EL was (AAA: ; PAU: 100%), and freedom from EL type III was (AAA: ; PAU: 100%) at the end of the follow-up period. Conclusions. Very narrow aortic bifurcations may predispose patients to procedure-related complications following EVAR. Our results suggest a safe use of the AFX stent graft in such scenarios. The overall short- and long-term procedure-related patient outcomes are satisfying albeit they may seem superior for PAU when compared to AAA.

Research Article

Retrograde Popliteal Access for Challenging Superficial Femoral Artery Occlusion

Retrograde popliteal access has long been established as an alternative to the antegrade approach to occlusive lesions in the superficial femoral artery (SFA). However, early reports with high complication rates (dissection, hematomas, aneurysms, and arteriovenous shunts at the puncture site) reduced enthusiasm for this technique. In recent years, with the development of thinner sheaths and low profile angioplasty devices, retrograde popliteal access has resurfaced as a viable technique, mostly in combination with or after failure of the more classical antegrade approach. In this retrospective study, we will report the safety and efficacy of the retrograde popliteal approach in the treatment of superficial femoral artery chronic total occlusions, in 13 consecutive patients between January 2017 and January 2021. The results showed 100% successful puncture of the popliteal artery and 100% successful recanalization and stenting of the superficial femoral artery with a total of 2 complications related to the puncture site and zero periprocedural mortality. In conclusion, the retrograde popliteal approach appears to be an effective and safe alternative to the common SFA complete total occlusion (CTO) treatment approach.

International Journal of Vascular Medicine
 Journal metrics
See full report
Acceptance rate-
Submission to final decision-
Acceptance to publication-
CiteScore2.400
Journal Citation Indicator0.230
Impact Factor-
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Article of the Year Award: Outstanding research contributions of 2020, as selected by our Chief Editors. Read the winning articles.